PG Syllbus

M.V.Sc. Programme in Animal Biotechnology as per ICAR guidelines
 
Minimum Credit Requirements:
 
S.N.
Subject
Credit Requirement
1
Major
28
2
Minor + Supporting
11
3
Seminar
01
4
Research
20
 
TOTAL
60
 Major / Minor / Supporting Subjects:
 
Major Subject
Animal Biotechnology
 
Minor & Supporting Subject
Veterinary Microbiology,
Biochemistry,
Animal Reproduction,
Animal Genetics and Breeding, Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary Physiology
 COURSE STRUCTURE
 
S. N.
Course No.
Title
Credits
Semester
Department (s) offering the course
1
ABT 601
Basic & Applied Biotechnology
3+0=3
I
Animal Biotechnology
2
ABT 602**
Fundamentals of Cell & Molecular Biology
3+0=3
I
Biochemistry
3
ABT 603
Applied Molecular Biology
2+1=3
II
Animal Biotechnology
4
ABT 604**
Animal Cell Culture: Principles and Applications
1+2=3
I
Animal Biotechnology
5
ABT 605**
Molecular Diagnostics
1+2=3
II
Animal Biotechnology
6
ABT 606
Vaccine Biotechnology
2+0=2
III
Animal Biotechnology
7
ABT 607
Immunology Applied to Biotechnology
1+1=2
III
Animal Biotechnology
8
ABT 608
Introduction to Bioinformatics
1+1=2
III
Animal Biotechnology
9
ABT 609**
Animal Genomics
2+1=3
II
Animal Genetics & Breeding
10
ABT 610**
Reproductive Biotechnology
2+1=3
III
Animal Reproduction
11
ABT 611**
Techniques in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering
0+3=3
II
Animal Biotechnology
12
ABT 613
Molecular Forensics
2+1=3
III
Animal Biotechnology
13
ABT 616
Animal Biotechnology
3+0=3
II
Animal Biotechnology/ Animal Reproduction/ Animal Genetics & Breeding
14
ABT 691
Master’s Seminar
0+1=1
III
 
15
ABT 699
Master’s Research
20
III & IV
 
** Compulsory courses
 
Semester-wise distribution of courses
 
S. N.
Course No.
Title
Credits
SEMESTER I
1
ABT 601
Basic & Applied Biotechnology
3+0=3
2
ABT 602**
Fundamentals of Cell & Molecular Biology
3+0=3
3
ABT 604**
Animal Cell Culture: Principles and Applications
1+2=3
SEMESTER II
4
ABT 603
Applied Molecular Biology
2+1=3
5
ABT 605**
Molecular Diagnostics
1+2=3
6
ABT 609**
Animal Genomics
2+1=3
7
ABT 611**
Techniques in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering
0+3=3
8
ABT 616
Animal Biotechnology
3+0=3
SEMESTER III
9
ABT 606
Vaccine Biotechnology
2+1=3
10
ABT 607
Immunology Applied to Biotechnology
1+1=2
11
ABT 608
Introduction to Bioinformatics
1+1=2
12
ABT 610**
Reproductive Biotechnology
2+1=3
13
ABT 613
Molecular Forensics
2+1=3
14
ABT 691
Master’s Seminar
0+1=1
SEMESTER IV
15
ABT 699
Master’s Research
20
** The course nos. ABT 602, ABT 604, ABT 605, ABT 609, ABT 610 & ABT 611 (Total credits 18) and Master’s seminar (ABT 691- 0+1) are compulsory.  The remaining 10 credits may be offered from any of the available courses as decided by the advisory committee of the student.  
 
Semester-wise distribution of credits
 
S. N.
Semester
Major
Minor
Total
Course work
Research
1
I
9
6
15
2
II
12
3
15
3
III
8
5
2
15
4
IV
15
15
 
TOTAL
29
20
11
60
 Basic & Applied Biotechnology
 
Course No.
ABT-601
Title
Basic & Applied Biotechnology
Credits
3+0=3
Semester
I
 
Lecture No.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
Historical background of Biotechnology
2 – 3
Scope of Biotechnology
4 – 5
Introduction to Genetic Engineering
6 – 7
Plant tissue culture and its applications
8 – 10
Animal Tissue culture and its applications
11 – 13
Fermentation technology
 
UNIT II
14 – 15
Immobilized enzymes
16 – 17
Vaccines – conventional and newer vaccines
18 – 19
Monoclonal antibodies and Hybridoma Technology
20 – 21
Biotechnological tools in development of diagnostic tests
22 – 24
Embryo transfer technology, Sexing of semen, embryos etc
25- 26
Development of transgenic animals and applications
 
UNIT III
27 – 28
Study of bacterial/ viral genomes etc
29 – 30
Study of plasmids/phage genome and libraries
31 – 32
Study of physical maps of bacteria,viruses, yeasts etc.
33 – 34
Study of genetic maps, phylogenetic analysis etc.
35 – 36
Different types of DNA markers
37 – 38
Applications of DNA markers in selection of breeds etc.
 
UNIT IV
39 – 40
Application of Biotechnology in agriculture
41 – 42
Application of Biotechnology in animal and Veterinary Sciences
43 – 44
Application of Biotechnology in Pharmaceutical Industry
45 – 46
Application of Biotechnology in Food Industry and Chemical Industry
47 – 48
Application of Biotechnology in environmental sciences
Suggested Readings:
Becker, J. M., Cold Well G. A. and Zachgo E. A. 2007. Biotechnology a Laboratory Course, Academic Press
Brown C.M.,Campbell,I.and Priest F. G. 2005. Introduction to Biotechnology. Panima
Singh, B.D. 2006. Biotechnology Expanding Horizon, Kalyani.
  
Fundamentals of Cell and Molecular Biology
 
Course No.
ABT 602
Title
Fundamentals of Cello and Molecular Biology
Credits
3 + 0 = 3
Semester
I
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1 – 2
Evolution of cells
3 – 5
Introduction to molecular interactions, thermodynamics and equilibrium in molecular recognition and biological functions.
6 – 8
Energy production: Structure of mitochondria, and chloroplasts, respiratory chain, ATP synthesis, photosynthesis, genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts,
9 – 12
Cellular compartments and intercellular sorting of proteins: endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, peroxisomes, synthesis and soorting of proteins lysosomal proteins, membrane proteins, secretary proteins, lipoproteins, glycolipids. Lipid synthesis and transport.
 
UNIT II
13 – 16
Cytoskeleton: Mechanism of muscle contraction, actin filaments and cell cortex, cilliary movements and cytoplasmic microtubules and intermediate filaments.
17 – 20
Cell signaling: Endocrine, exocrine and synaptic signaling molecules, surface and intracellular receptors, G proteins and generation of secondary messengers, mode of action of cAMP and Ca++ calmodulin, target cell adaptation.
21 – 24
Cell growth and divisions: Cell cycle, cell division controls and transformation, growth factors, genes for social control of cell division, mechanism of cell division, cell adhesion, cell junctions and the extra cellular matrix, growth, development and differentiation.
 
UNIT III
25 – 26
History of molecular biology
27 – 30
Nucleic acid as hereditary material, structure of DNA, chromatin, rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, proteins.
31 – 36
DNA replication, transcription, translation, genetic code, operon, positive and negative control of gene expression, important enzymes such as RNA replicase, reverse transcriptase, ligase, polymerase, ribozyme, etc.
 
UNIT IV
37 – 40
Molecular mechanism of mutation.
41 – 44
Molecular organization of cell, structure of genomes, synthetic chromosomes.
45 – 48
RNA processing and alternative splicing, molecular biology of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and stress tolerance, development and differentiation and molecular evolution, RNAi and application.
Suggested Readings
 
Lewin B. 2008. Gene IX. Jones & Bartlett.
Primrose SB. 2001. Molecular Biotechnology. Panima.
TwymanRM.2003. Advanced Molecular Biology. Bios Scientific.
Applied Molecular Biology
 
Course No.
ABT 603
Title
Applied Molecular Biology
Credits
2 + 1=3
Semester
II
THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1 – 2
Enzymes used in molecular biology and recombinant DNA research,
3 – 4
Gene identification, construction of gene libraries
5 – 6
Cloning and expression vectors
7 – 8
Gene mapping and DNA structure analysis
 
UNIT II
9 – 11
Methods of DNA sequencing
12 – 13
synthesis of double stranded DNA and complementary DNA
14 – 16
cDNA library identification and enrichment of recombinant clones
 
UNIT III
17 – 18
Methods for transfer of cloned DNA
19 – 20
Analysis and expression of recombinant DNA
21 – 22
Site directed DNA alterations and gene manipulations
23 – 24
Cloning in bacteria, yeast, plant and animal cells
 
UNIT IV
25 – 27
Genetics of tumourogenic region of agrobacteria and its applications in
agriculture, veterinary and medical sciences
28 – 30
biotechnology applications for production of high value and industrial products
31 – 32
safety aspects of genetic manipulations
 PRACTICAL
 
Practical Nos.
Name of the experiment
1
Extraction of DNA
2
Extraction of RNA
3
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)
4
Agarose gel electrophoresis
5
Restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA.
6
Isolation and purification of plasmids
7
Polymerase chain reaction
8
Polymerase chain reaction contd.
9
Cloning of gene
10
Cloning of gene contd.
11
Expression of cloned gene
12
Expression of cloned gene contd.
13
Purification of recombinant protein
14
Blotting
15
RFLP
16
RAPD
 Suggested Readings:
 
Kun LY. 2006. Microbial Biotechnology. World Scientific. Sambrook J & Russel DW. 2001. Molecular Cloning: a LaboratoryManual. ColdSpringHarbour Lab. Press.
 TwymanRM.2003. Advanced Molecular Biology. Bios Scientific.
  
Animal Cell Cultures: Principle and Applications
  
Course No.
ABT- 604
Title
Animal cell cultures: Principle & applications
Credits
1+2 = 3
Semester
I
 THEORY
 
Lecture No.
Name of Experiment
 
UNIT I
1.
Introduction and Importance of cell culture,  historical background of cell culture technology
2.
Tissue culture techniques – primary and secondary culture, continuous cell lines, suspension cultures, organ cultures etc
3.
Tissue culture techniques contd.
 
UNIT II
4.
Different types of media for culturing cells and tissues
5.
Natural and defined media and growth supplements
6.
Culture of different tissues and its application
 
UNIT III
7.
Behaviour of cells in terms of growth differentiation and metabolism
8.
Behaviour of cells contd.
9.
Cell division, growth patterns of cells
10
Estimation of cell number
 
UNIT IV
11.
Development of cell lines
12.
Characterization and maintenance of cell lines
13
Characterization and maintenance of cell lines contd.
14
Stem cells and their applications
15
Cryopreservation
16
Common cell culture contaminants
PRACTICAL
 
Practical No.
Name of Experiment
1
Washing, preparation and sterilization of glassware for cell culture
2
Washing, preparation and sterilization of glassware for cell culture contd.
3
Preparation and sterilization of filter assembly
4
Filtration of media, trypsin, TVG solutions etc
5
Filtration of media, trypsin, TVG solutions etc contd.
6
Preparation of primary cell culture from chick embryo, kidney etc.
7
Preparation of primary cell culture contd.
8
Secondary culture of chick embryo fibroblast
9
Adaptation of cell lines to laboratory media
10
Adaptation of cell lines to laboratory media contd.
11
Subculturing and maintenance of cell lines       
12
Subculturing and maintenance of cell lines contd.    
13
Quantification of viable cells by trypan blue dye exclusion technique
14
Study the cytopathic effects of viruses on Primary cell cultures
15
Study the cytopathic effects of viruses on Primary cell cultures contd.
16
Study the cytopathic effects of viruses on cell lines
17
Study the cytopathic effects of viruses on cell lines contd.
18
Harvesting and preservation of viruses
19
Harvesting and preservation of viruses contd.
20
Study of effect of toxins/ toxic chemicals on cell lines
21
Study the effect of toxins/ toxic chemicals on cell lines contd.
22
Study the effect of drugs on cell lines
23
Study the effect of drugs on cell lines contd.
24
Isolation and cultivation of lymphocytes
25
Isolation and cultivation of lymphocytes contd.
26
Study of viral/bacterial internalization in lymphocytes
27
Study of viral/bacterial internalization in lymphocytes contd.
28
Suspension culture technique
29
Study of characteristics of suspension cell cultures
30
Preparation of cryoprotectant media
31
Cryopreservation of primary cell cultures
32
Cryopreservation of cell lines
 Textbooks:
1.         Freshney RI. 2005. Culture of Animal Cells. Wiley Liss.
2.         Portner R. 2007. Animal Cell Biotechnology. Humana Press.
  
Molecular Diagnostics
 
Course No.
ABT-605
Title
Molecular Diagnostics
Credits
1 + 2 = 3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Lecture No.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1.
Introduction, importance and historical perspective of development of molecular diagnostic technology
2.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: Principle and applications
3.
Western Blotting: Principle and applications
4.
Concept of development of group specific and strain specific nucleic acid based diagnostics
5.
 Basis for selection of gene/nucleotide sequence of pathogenic organism to target for detection
 
UNIT II
6.
Application of restriction endonuclease analysis for identification of pathogens,
7
Principle of development of pathogen specific DNA probes
8.
Southern and Northern hybridization
 
UNIT III
9.
Theoretical back ground of development of PCR
10
Different types of PCR assays
11.
Application of PCR for diagnosis of infectious diseases of animals and poultry
12.
Nucleic acid sequence based diagnostics
 
UNIT IV
13
Advancements in diagnostic technology including DNA array technology
14
Advancements in diagnostic technology including DNA array technology contd.
15
Biosensors and Nanotechnology
16
OIE guidelines in development of diagnostics
PRACTICAL
 
Practical Nos.
Experiment
1.
Preparation of buffers and reagents
2.
Collection, preservation and transport of clinical and environmental samples from animal and poultry farms for molecular detection of pathogens
3 – 4
Isolation of bacterial pathogens from clinical specimens
 
Isolation of bacterial pathogens contd.
4 – 5
Extraction of nucleic acids from bacteria and clinical specimens
6 – 7
Restriction endonuclease digestion and analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis
8 – 9
Development of animal pathogen specific nucleic acid probes
10 – 11
Southern blotting for animal pathogens
12 – 14
PCR for identification of bacterial pathogens from cultures
PCR for detection of bacterial pathogens from blood
PCR for detection of bacterial pathogens from animal tissues, clinical specimens
15 – 16
RT-PCR for detection of RNA viruses
17 – 19
Real time PCR for detection of pathogens in semen and other animal tissues
20 – 23
DNA fingerprinting for identification of animal species:
Extraction of DNA from meat/tissue/ blood samples
PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene
Restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR product
Analysis of RE digests by agarose gel electrophoresis and interpretation of results
24 – 26
PCR based detection of adulteration in processed and unprocessed meats:
Extraction of DNA from meat samples
PCR amplification
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis
27 – 28
Detection of food borne pathogenic organisms in vegetables and fruits using PCR technology
29 – 30
PCR based detection of potential pathogens in milk, eggs and meat
31 – 32
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting
 Suggested readings:
 
Elles R. and Mountford, R. 2004. Molecular diagnosis of genetic disease. Humana Press
 
Rao, R. R., fleming C. C. and Moore, J. E. 2006. Molecular Diagnostics. Horizon Bioscience.
  
Vaccine Biotechnology
 
Course No.
ABT-606
Title
Vaccine Biotechnology
Credits
2+1=3
Semester
III
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
History of vaccinology
2 – 3
Conventional approaches to vaccine development
4 – 5
Live attenuated and killed vaccines
6 – 7
Preservation and monitoring of microorganisms in seed lot systems
8 – 9
Adjuvants and immunomodulators
 
UNIT II
10 – 11
Instruments related to monitoring of temperature, sterilization, environment, quality assurance and related areas
12 – 13
Production techniques
14 – 15
Growing the microorganisms in maximum titre
16 – 17
Preservation techniques to maintain good antigen quality-  Freeze drying, ultra freezing, etc.
18 – 19
Large scale production of vaccines and automation
 
UNIT III
20 – 24
Recent developments in vaccine technology – subunit vaccines, synthetic vaccines, rDNA vaccines, idiotypic, DNA, glycoconjugate, deletion and edible vaccines, nanoparticles in vaccine delivery systems etc.
25 – 26
GMPs, quality control of conventional and recombinant vaccines
 
UNIT IV
27 – 28
Introduction to pharmacopeal requirement
29 – 30
Disease security and biosecurity principles
31 – 32
OIE guidelines such as seed management, method of manufacture, in-process control, batch control, tests on final product
 PRACTICAL 
 
Practical No.
Experiment
1
Cultivation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs or bacteria on culture media
2
Harvesting of virus from inoculated eggs
3
Cultivation of bacteria on culture media
4
Harvesting of bacterial from inoculated culture media
5
Inactivation of harvested virus or bacterial cultures
6
Safety and sterility testing of inactivated vaccine
7
Safety and sterility testing contd.
8
Inoculation of tissue culture for propagation of virus
9
Harvesting and production of inactivated virus vaccine
10
Isolation and cloning of genes encoding immunogenic proteins
11
Isolation and cloning of genes encoding immunogenic proteins contd.
12
Expression of cloned gene
13
Expression of cloned gene contd.
14
Purification of recombinant immunogenic protein
15
Immunogenecity studies of recombinant protein: Immunization of laboratory animals or poultry
16
Immunogenecity studies contd.: Titration of antibodies against recombinant protein
 Suggested Readings:
 
1.         Barry R Bloom, Paul-Henri Lambert 2002. The Vaccine Book. Academic
            Press.
2.         Levine MM, Kaper JB, Rappuoli R, Liu MA, Good MF. 2004. New
            Generation Vaccines. 3rd Ed. Informa Healthcare.
3.         Lowrie DB & Whalen R. 2000. DNA Vaccines. Humana Press.
4.         Robinson A & Cranage MP. 2003. Vaccine Protocols. 2nd Ed. Humana
            Press.
 Immunology Applied to Biotechnology
 
Course No.
ABT-607
Title
Immunology applied to Biotechnology
Credits
1+1=2
Semester
III
 
Lecture No.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1.
Introduction to Immunology
2.
Principles of Immunology
3.
Immune system – organs and cells of the immune system
4.
Immune response – specific, nonspecific, passive, active responses
5.
Major Histocompatibility complex – different classes, comparative study of different species
6.
Various techniques used in biotechnology
 
UNIT II
7.
Application of antibodies in purification of recombinant proteins
8.
Immunoblotting of recombinant proteins
9.
Expression of recombinant proteins
10.
Detection of recombinant proteins in different expression systems
11.
Industrial production of cytokines and interferons and purification
12.
Expression of immunoglobulin genes in plants and production of antibodies
 
UNIT III
13.
Application of antibodies in chemiluminescence studies and fluorescence assays for recombinant genes
14.
Antibody based nucleic acid probes and their applications
15
Immunoinformatics
 
UNIT IV
16.
Somatic cell hybridization, hybridoma technology, commercial production of monoclonal antibodies
PRACTICAL
 
Practical No.
Experiment
1.
Immunodiffusion
2.
Immunoelectrophoresis
3.
Fluorescent antibody test
4.
Immunoperoxidase test
5.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)
6.
PAGE
7.
Immunoblotting
8.
Separation of immunoglobulins from serum by ammonium sulphate pptation and dialysis
9.
Affinity chromatography
10.
Bioinformatics tools for immunological research
11.
Cultivation of normal lymphocyte culture
12.
Maintenance of myeloma cell line
13
Cell fusion and observation of cell clones
14
Identification of hybrid clones
15
Screening of hybrids for production of monoclonal antibodies and titration of antibodies from the antibody producing clones
16
Subculturing and maintenance of antibody producing clones.
 Suggested Readings:
 
1.         Barry R Bloom, Paul-Henri Lambert 2002. The Vaccine Book. Academic
            Press.
 
2.         Levine MM, Kaper JB, Rappuoli R, Liu MA, Good MF. 2004. New
            Generation Vaccines. 3rd Ed. Informa Healthcare.
 
3.         Lowrie DB & Whalen R. 2000. DNA Vaccines. Humana Press.
 
4.         Robinson A & Cranage MP. 2003. Vaccine Protocols. 2nd Ed. Humana
            Press.
 
Introduction to Bioinformatics
 
Course No.
ABT 608
Title
Introduction to Bioinformatics
Credits
1 + 1 = 3
Semester
III
 THEORY 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
Introduction, biological databases – primary, secondary and structural
2
Protein and Gene Information Resources – PIR, SWISSPROT, PDB,
genebank, DDBJ
3
Specialized genomic resources
 
UNIT II
4 – 5
DNA sequence analysis,
6 – 7
cDNA libraries and EST, EST analysis
8
Pairwise alignment techniques
9
Database searching
10
Multiple sequence alignment
 
UNIT III
11
Secondary database searching,
12
Building search protocol
13
Computer aided  drug design – basic principles, docking, QSAR
 
UNIT IV
14
Analysis packages – commercial databases and packages
15
GPL software for bioinformatics
16
Web-based analysis tools.
 PRACTICAL 
 
Practical No.
Experiment
 
 
1 – 3
The knowledge of various databases and bioinformatics tools available at NCBI the major content of the databases, purpose and utility
4 – 5
Open access bibliographic resources and literature databases
6 – 10
Primary and secondary databases, Retrieval of sequence / structure from databases: Nucleic acid sequence databases, Protein sequence databases
Genome Databases, Visualization of structures
11 – 13
Docking of ligand receptors
14 – 16
Sequence-based Database Searches – BLAST exercises, sequence analysis using on-line tools, interpretation of results
 Suggested Readings:
 
Attwood TK & Parry-Smith DJ. 2003. Introduction to Bioinformatics. Pearson Education.
 
Rastogi SC, Mendiratta N & Rastogi P. 2004. Bioinformatics: Concepts, Skills and Applications. CBS.
 
Animal Genomics
 
Course No.
ABT-609
Title
Animal Genomics
Credits
2+1=3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
  1. Historical perspective
2 – 3
  1. Genome organization in eukaryotes
4 – 5
  1. Satellite DNA including mini and macro satellites and their various families, Long and short interspersed nucleotide elements
6 – 8
  1. DNA markers – RAPD, STR, SSCP,RFLP, DNA fingerprinting, SNP, EST etc..
 
  1. UNIT II
9 – 10
  1. Importance of gene mapping in livestock, methods and techniques used for gene mapping
11 – 12
  1. Physical mapping, linkage analysis, cytogenetic techniques
13 – 15
  1. FISH technique in gene mapping, somatic cell hybridization, radiation hybrid maps, in-situ hybridization, comparative gene mapping
 
  1. UNIT III
16
  1. Genetic distance analysis
17 – 18
  1. Breed characterization on the basis of DNA markers
19 – 20
  1. Genetic markers for quantitative traits loci
21 – 22
  1. Marker assisted selection for incorporation of desirable traits DNA markers with economic traits
23 – 24
  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of different structural genes
 
  1. UNIT IV
26 – 27
  1. Current status of gene maps of livestock
27 – 28
  1. MHC and its relevance to disease resistance and immune response
29 – 30
  1. Genes influencing production traits
31 – 32
  1. Mitrochondrial DNA of farm animals, evolutionary significance, application of genome analysis of animals in breeding
PRACTICAL
 
Practical No.
Experiment
1.
Preparation of lymphocyte culture from cattle, buffalo etc.
2.
Fixation of cells and chromosomal preparation
3.
Karyotyping and observation of different banding patterns
4.
Isolation and purification of animal genomic DNA from blood lymphocytes from cattle, buffalo etc.
5.
Analysis of DNA by agarose gel or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
6.
Checking quality and quantity of genomic DNA by AGE
7.
Restriction digestion and analysis
8.
Southern hybridization
9.
DNA fingerprinting
10.
Techniques for detecting polymorphism  – RAPD
11.
RFLP
12.
SSCP
13
AFLP
14
STRP
15
Cloning of genomic DNA or cDNA cloning
16
Differentiation of tissues of different species by mitochondrial genome analysis
 Suggested Readings:
 
Gibson, G. and Muse S. V. 2004. A primer of Genome Science, Sinauer Associates
 
Primrose, S. B. and Twyman R. M. 2007. Principles of Genome analysis and genomics. Blackwell
 
Sensen C.W. 2005. Handbook of Genome Research. Vols. I, II. Wiley-CVH
 
Reproductive Biotechnology
 
Course No.
ABT 610
Title
Reproductive Biotechnology
Credits
2 + 1=3
Semester
III
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1 – 4
History, importance of  assisted reproductive biotechnology in man animals, Introduction to embryo biotechnology, endocrine therapeutics
 
UNIT II
5 – 10
Biotechnological approaches to reproduction: Applications, Advantages & disadvantages of ETT; Selection of donors and recipients for embryo transfer, Methods of synchronization of  oestrus, Methodology of super ovulations, Methods of Embryo collection & embryo evaluation, Methods of embryo transfer
11 – 16
In vitro maturation (IVM), Preparation of semen, ,In vitro capacitation of sperm (IVC), In vitro fertilization(IVF), In vitro culture, Embryo culture and micromanipulation
 
UNIT III
17 – 22
Different method of gene transfer and their limitations, embryo splitting, embryo sexing by different methods, production of transgenic livestock by nuclear transfer and its application, regulatory issues.
 
UNIT IV
23 – 28
Cloning of domestic animals. Conservation of endangered species, Characterization of embryonic stem cells. Different applications of embryonic stem cells
29 – 32
Ultrasound techniques in pregnancy diagnosis, Laparoscopic techniques in embryo transfer
 PRACTICAL
 
Practical Nos.
Name of the experiment
1
Preparation of glassware/plastic ware/reagents for ETT
2
Selection of donors and recipients
3 – 4
Synchronization and superovulation protocols
5
Collection of embryos using non-surgical procedures
6
Transferring embryos using non- surgical procedures
7
Oocyte collection and evaluation
8 – 9
In vitro maturation (IVM), Preparation of semen, In vitro capacitation of sperm (IVC)
10 – 11
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
12 – 13
Culture of embryos
14
Micromanipulation of early embryos
15
Embryo-spliting
16
Cryopreservation of embryos
 Suggested Readings:
 
Ball P.J.H. and Peter A.R. 2004 Reproduction in cattle. Blackwell
 
Gordon,I.2003 Laboratory Production of Cattle Embryos. CABI
 
Gordon,I.2005 Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animals. CABI
 
Techniques in Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering
 
Course No.
ABT 611
Title
Techniques in Molecular Biology & genetic Engineering
Credits
0 + 3 = 3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Practical Nos
Experiment
 
UNIT I
1 – 2
Preparation of solutions, reagents required for isolation of DNA and other molecular biology work
3 – 4
Isolation of bacterial plasmids
5 – 6
Isolation of chromosomal DNA from bacteria
7 – 8
Isolation of DNA from mammalian cells
9 – 10
Isolation of mRNA/RNA
11 – 12
Quantification of nucleic acids
 
UNIT II
13 – 15
Plasmid minIprep; Isolation of plasmid and restriction endonuclease digestion
16 – 18
Restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal DNA
19 – 21
Agarose gel electrophoresis of RE digested DNA
22 – 24
cDNA synthesis
 
UNIT III
25 – 26
Polymerase Chain Reaction using random primers
27 – 28
Polymerase Chain Reaction using specific primers
29 – 34
Different types of PCR, Multiplex PCR, Nested PCR, Real time polymerase chain reaction
 
UNIT IV
35 – 37
Cloning of bacterial and viral genes in to plasmid vectors
38 – 40
DNA ligation and transformation
41 – 44
Confirmation of insert by RE digestion and touch PCR
45 – 48
Synthesis of nucleic acid probes, Nucleic acid hybridization
 Suggested Readings:
 
Kun LY. 2006. Microbial Biotechnology. World Scientific.
Sambrook J & Russel DW. 2001. Molecular Cloning: a LaboratoryManual.ColdSpringHarbour Lab. Press.
TwymanRM.2003. Advanced Molecular Biology. Bios Scientific.
  
Molecular Forensics
 
Course No.
ABT 613
Title
Molecular Forensics
Credits
2 + 1 = 3
Semester
III
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
General history of forensic science
2
introduction to DNA forensics
3 – 4
Scope and application of DNA forensics in animal and human criminal investigations in variety of situations
 
UNIT II
5 – 6
Isolation of nucleic acids and quantification
7 – 8
DNA finger-printing: Different methods
9 – 10
PCR and its applications
11 – 12
Nucleic acid hybridization
13 – 14
Restriction endo-nuclease analysis and sequencing
15 – 16
Mitochondrial DNA analysis and its applications
17 – 18
Individual Animal Identification using DNA fingerprinting
 
UNIT III
19 – 21
Animal species identification in religious disputes
22 – 24
Identification of adulteration of meat by DNA based techniques
25 – 27
Molecular techniques for investigations into theft of farm animals, pets etc.
28
Advantages, disadvantages and limitations of DNA forensics
 
UNIT IV
29 – 30
Mass spectroscopy for characterization of proteins 
31 – 32
Immunological techniques viz. ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorence.
 PRACTICAL
 
Practical Nos.
Name of the experiment
1
Collection, preservation, dispatch and storage of material for forensic analysis
2
Preparation of solutions, reagents required for forensic analysis employing molecular techniques
3
Isolation of nucleic acid from blood, milk and other body fluids
4
Isolation of nucleic acid from wild animal scat
5
Isolation of nucleic acid from skin, meat, hair, cooked and putrefied meat
6
Designing of primers
7
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of species
8
Multiplex PCR for species identification
9
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
10
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis
11
Identification of meat animal species by PCR RFLP analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene
12
Identification of meat animal species by PCR RFLP analysis contd.
13
Detection of adulteration in meat by PCR
14
Detection of adulteration in meat by nucleic acid hybridization assay
15
Detection of adulteration in meat contd.
16
Immunological techniques for identification of meat animal species
 Suggested Readings:
 
Lincoln PJ & Thomson J. 1998. Forensic DNA Profiling Protocols. Humana Press.
 
Rudin N & Inman K. 2002. An Introduction to Forensic DNA Analysis. 2nd Ed. CRC Press.
 
Animal Biotechnology
 
Course No.
ABT 616
Title
Animal Biotechnology
Credits
3 + 0 = 3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1
Structure of animal cell , History of animal cell culture
2 – 3
Cell culture media and reagents, culture of mammalian cells, tissues and organs, primary culture, secondary culture, continuous cell lines, suspension cultures
4
Somatic cell cloning and hybridization, transfection and transformation of cells
5
Commercial scale production of animal cells
6
Application of animal cell culture for in vitro testing of drugs
7
Testing of toxicity of environmental pollutants in cell culture
8
Application of cell culture technology in production of human and animal viral vaccines and pharmaceutical proteins
 
UNIT II
9
Introduction to immune system
10
Cellular and humoral immune response
11
History of development of vaccines, introduction to the concept of vaccines
12
Conventional methods of animal vaccine production
13
Recombinant approaches to vaccine production,
14
Hybridoma technology
15 – 16
Phage display technology for production of antibodies
17 – 18
Antigen-antibody based diagnostic assays including radioimmunoassays and enzyme immunoassays, immunoblotting,
19 – 20
Nucleic acid based diagnostic methods
21
Commercial scale production of diagnostic antigens and antisera, animal disease diagnostic, kits, probiotics.
 
UNIT III
22
Structure of sperms and ovum
23
Cryopreservation of sperms and ova of livestock, artificial insemination
24 – 25
Super ovulation, in vitro fertilization, culture of embryos, cryopreservation of embryos, embryo transfer, embryo-spliting, embryo sexing
26 – 27
Transgenic manipulation of animal embryos, different applications of transgenic animal technology,
28
Animal cloning basic concept, cloning from- embryonic cells and adult cells,
29
Cloning of different animals, cloning for conservation for conservation endangered species
30
Ethical, social and moral issues related to cloning
31
In situ and ex situ preservation of germplasm
32
In utero testing of foetus for genetic defects, pregnancy diagnostic kits, anti-fertility animal vaccines,
33
Gene knock out technology and animal models for human genetic disorders
 
UNIT IV
34 – 35
Introduction to different breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, horses, canines and poultry
36 – 37
Genetic characterization of livestock breeds,
38
Marker assisted breeding of livestock,
39
Introduction to animal genomics,
40 – 41
Different methods for characterization of animal genomes, SNP, STR, QTL, RFLP, RAPD
42
Genetic basis for disease resistance,
43
Transgenic animal production and application in expression of therapeutic proteins
44
Immunological and nucleic acid based methods for identification of animal species
45
Detection of meat adulteration using DNA based methods
46
Detection of food/feed adulteration with animal protein
47 – 48
Identification of wild animal species using DNA based methods using different parts including bones, hair, blood, skin and other parts confiscated by anti-poaching agencies
 Suggested Readings:
 
GordonI.2005. Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animals. CABI
 
Kindt TJ, Goldsby RA & Osbrne BA. 2007. Kuby Immunology. WH Freeman
 
Kun LY. 2006. Microbial Biotechnology. World Scientific
 
Levine MM, Kaper JB, Rappuoli R, Liu MA, Good MF. 2004. New Generation Vaccines. 3rd Ed. Informa Healthcare
 
Lincoln PJ & Thomson J. 1998. Forensic DNA Profiling Protocols. Humana Press.
 
Portner R. 2007. Animal Cell Biotechnology. Humana Press.
 
Spinger TA. 1985. Hybridoma Technology in Biosciences and Medicine. Plenum Press.
 
TwymanRM.2003. Advanced Molecular Biology. Bios Scientific.
 

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