PG Syllabus

ANIMAL NUTRITION
 
CODE
 
COURSE TITLE
CREDITS
ANN 601
ANIMAL NUTRITION – ENERGY AND PROTEIN 
3+0
ANN 602
ANIMAL NUTRITION – MINERALS, VITAMINS AND FEED ADDITIVES
3+1
ANN 603
ANN 603 FEED TECHNOLOGY
 
1+1
ANN 604
FEED CONSERVATION ,STORAGE AND QUALITY CONTROL
2+2
ANN 605
RUMINANT NUTRITION  
2+1
ANN 606
NON-RUMINANT NUTRITION
1+1
ANN 607
NUTRITION OF COMPANION/LABORATORY,
WILD AND ZOO ANIMALS
2+1
ANN 608
RESEARCH TECHNIQUES IN ANIMALNUTRITION
1+3
ANN 609
NON CONVENTIONAL FEED STUFF AND
TOXIC CONSTITUENTS/ANTIMETABOLITES IN
ANIMAL FEEDSTUFF
2+1
ANN 691
 
MASTER’S SEMINAR
1+0
ANN 699
MASTER’S RESEARCH
20
 
 
Syllabus M.V.Sc. details:
 
ANN 601 ANIMAL NUTRITION – ENERGY AND PROTEIN (3+0)
  
Objective
 
                 Familiarization with fundamental concepts of energy and proteins, metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein and their efficiency of utilization. Requirement of carbohydrates, fat and proteins for various physiological functions.
 
Theory
 
UNIT I
 
Basic terminology and classification of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Fundamental concepts of Digestion and metabolism of Carbohydrate Fat and Protein in different species of animals. Gluconeogenesis, Recent advances in glucogenic precursors on acetate utilization. NPN metabolism, urea fermentation potential and metabolizable protein. Amino acids imbalance,
antagonism and toxicity.
 
UNIT II
 
Measures of feed energy. Partitioning of feed energy. Efficiency of energy and Protein utilization. Feeding standards- comparative appraisal and limitations.
 
UNIT III
 
Rumen degradable Protein (RDP), and rumen undegradable protein (UDN) and Kinetics. Energetics of protein synthesis and turn over. Quantification of microbial protein synthesis. Protein quality determination in monogastrics and utility.
 
UNIT IV
 
Energy balance, Fasting catabolism. Direct and indirect calorimetry.Determination of energy and protein requirements. Energy and protein requirement for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and lactation in ruminants, companion animals and poultry.
 
ANN 602 ANIMAL NUTRITION – MINERALS, VITAMINS AND
FEED ADDITIVES (3+1)
 
Objective
 
Role, requirement, functions, deficiency and toxic effects of vitamins, essential, probably essential and toxic minerals. Understanding soil-plantanimal- human relationship for utilization of minerals. Recent trends in the use of feed additives, probiotics, prebiotic and enzymes in animal feeding.
  
Theory
 
UNIT I
 
Essential minerals, general role of minerals, soil-plant-animal-human relationship, requirement of minerals, factors affecting requirements. Macro elements and micro elements, their distribution, metabolism, physiological functions, deficiencies and excesses, requirements and sources. Probable essential minerals. Toxic minerals. Definition, history, classification, chemistry, functions, deficiencies and excesses, requirements and sources of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
 
UNIT II
 
Critical minerals for ruminants and non-ruminants, chelates and chelated minerals. Inter-relationship of minerals with other nutrients. Impact of minerals arising from industrial affluent on animal health and production. Critical limits of minerals in edible herbages. Bioavailability studies in minerals. Impact of minerals on reproduction. Area specific minerals.
 
UNIT III
 
Relationship of vitamins with other nutrients. Critical vitamins for ruminants and non-ruminants.Feed additives including probiotics Prebiotics, Symbiotics and feed enzymes. Research techniques in nutrition.
 
Practical
 
General principles of mineral estimation, Sampling and processing techniques, Estimation of macro- and micro-minerals. Determination of bioavailability of minerals. Formulation of mineral mixture for various species. Identification of adulterants and quality control. Atomic absorption spectrometry in mineral estimation. Preparation of diets for mineral studies.Principles of vitamin
estimation. Estimation of some important vitamins (vitamin A,E,C). Formulation of vitamin mixture for various species.
 
 ANN 603 FEED TECHNOLOGY (1+1)
 
Objective
Introduction to the subject, formula feed manufacturing and different operations involved. Layout, designing, operation and management of feed mill.
 
Theory
 
UNIT I
Importance of feed technology in relation to animal productivity. The integrated biological, chemical and physical basis for evaluating the inherent nutritional quality of feed ingredients and feeds. Familiarization of various feed mill equipments, layout and operations. Problems of feed manufacturing units and control measures. Quarantine measures.
 
UNIT II
Introduction to the formula feed manufacturing including principles of material handling, grinding, mixing, pelleting and other major processing operations. Crumbling, Flaking, Popping, Extrusion. Principles of instrumentation and analysis, with emphasis on application to quality control and research in the feed industry.
 
UNIT III
The formulation of concentrate mixtures, premixes and rations using computer. Automated feed mill. Personal management in feed plants, laws and regulation of feed manufacturing industry. Codex alimentarius, HACCP. Organizational charts for small, medium and large feed plants, labour standard, planning and production programme, handling of plant equipment. Merits and demerits of automated feed plant.
 
Practical
 
Identification of feed ingredients and their specifications, as well as compound feed for different categories of livestock and poultry. Feed microscopy. Formulating premixes. Introduction to Pulverisers, pelletisers, complete feed blocks equipments Plant layout and design of different capacity of feed mills, problems related to feasibility, records keeping in different sections of feed mill. Experiential learning at the feed plant for preparing feed, urea molasses mineral blocks, mineral mixture.
 
 ANN 604 FEED CONSERVATION, STORAGE AND QUALITY CONTROL  (2+2)
 
Objective
To acquaint with inherent nutritional quality of feed ingredients and feeds. Evaluation of feeds and fodders and feed preservation techniques. Procurement and storage of feed ingredients. Losses during storage and its control.
 
Theory
 
UNIT I
Principles of feed and fodder processing and preservation techniques, their merits and demerits.Procurement, planning and purchase procedures; traditional and modern farm level storage structures. Feed storage and godown management, estimation of storage capacity and stack plan.
 
UNIT II
Evaluation of processed and preserved feeds and forages. Role of moisture, temperature and relative humidity during storage of feedstuffs and their effect on biotic factors. Handling and storage of liquid feed Ingredients.Physical and chemical changes in feeds during storage; storage losses; insect pests and rodents in feed stores and their control; Role of fungi, tolerance limits and measures to check them in stored products.
 
UNIT III
Factors affecting the quality of feed and feedstuffs on preservation. Microbiological evaluation of processed and preserved feeds, Effect of preservation on nutritional value of feed. Properties and mode of action of pesticides and fumigants; principles of good sanitation and hygiene of godowns.
 
UNIT IV
Proximate composition, Limitations of various systems of analysis, Partitioning of forage fibre by Van Soest method, Quality control of fed ingredients, Specifications of feed ingredients and finished feeds, BIS standard., Pesticide and insecticide residues in feeds
 
Practical
 
Laboratory evaluation of preserved and processed feed and forages. Physical properties of feeds and feedstuffs; identification of insect-pests and fungi in stored products; techniques for detection of hidden infestation in grains; quality control and inspection of stored feed materials; moisture equilibrium determination and estimation of chemical changes including alcoholic acidity, rancidity and uric acid in feeds during storage. Weende proximate analysis, Van Soest fibre fractionation, Enzymatic evaluation, Pro rata deduction (Feed laws), urea, FFA, peroxide value, adulterants, and heavy metal
 
ANN 605 RUMINANT NUTRITION  (2+1)
 
Objective
Requirement of nutrients for different physiological functions in various ruminant species. Latest concepts of feeding the nutrients for maximizing production.
Theory
 
UNIT I
Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to milk, meat and wool production.
 
UNIT II
Feeding standards, their history, comparative appraisal and limitations. Classification of feedstuffs. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry, pregnant and lactating cows, buffaloes, sheep and goat.
 
UNIT III
Introduction to rumen microflora and fauna. Development of rumen. Role of milk replacers and calf starters
 
UNIT IV
Feed formulation of large and small ruminants for different physiological stages. Concept of complete feed. Limiting nutrients and strategic feeding of high yielding ruminants. Concept of by-pass nutrients and their impact on production, reproduction and immune status. Importance of CLA, omega fatty acids, Scope for value addition in milk, Different systems of feeding buffalo
for beef production.. Feeding during natural calamities, feeding in various agro-climatic zones of India.
 
Practical
 
Design and planning of feeding experiments. Identification of feed and fodder on the basis of its composition. Artificial rumen technique, Methods for evaluation of feedstuffs- in vitro gas, in sacco digestion kinetics. Determination of nutritive value of feeds and fodders by metabolism trial in dairy cattle, determination of nutritive value of pastures by the use of range techniques, study of rumen metabolic profile. Preparation of Bypass Nutrients Identification of rumen microbes and rumen studies. 
ANN 606 NON-RUMINANT NUTRITION  (1+1)
 
Objective
Requirement of nutrients and feeding of various non-ruminants species for efficient quality production.
 
Theory
 
UNIT I
Nutrients, their metabolism and requirements for poultry and swine during different stages of growth and production. Limiting iminoacids-lysine and methionine.
 
UNIT II
Feeding systems and feed additives, feed formulations for different purposes including least cost rations.
 
UNIT III
Quality control of poultry and swine rations for efficient egg and meat production. Nutrition in relation to disease and stress.
 
UNIT IV
Nutritional factors affecting quality of the products. Hind gut fermentation and its importance, Nutrient requirements of rabbits and equines, Nutritional manipulation for producing value added egg, meat / pork
 
Practical
 
Design and planning for poultry and swine feeding experiments, formulation and compounding of general and least cost rations, determination of nutritive value of poultry and swine feeds by balance experiments, evaluation of protein quality, Visit to poultry and piggery units, feed and fodder stores, Use of software in least cost feed formulations. Basic principles governing the least cost formulation software’s.
 
ANN 607 NUTRITION OF COMPANION, LABORATORY, WILD AND ZOO ANIMALS (2+1)
 
Objective
Preparation, storage and evaluation of feeds and feeding standards of companion/ laboratory /wild and zoo animals
 
Theory
UNIT I
Feed Habbits, food Patterns, digestive structure and functions companion,  laboratory , wild and zoo animals. Natural dietary habits. Nutritional requirements of various species of animals.
 
UNIT II
Feeding standards and feeding habits of companion / laboratory animals. Importance of colostrum and feeding of neonates and growing animals. Feeding and care of nursing mothers. Feeding of sick and old animals. Post Surgical nutrition.
 
UNIT III
Ration formulation for captive animals. Artificial feeding and feeding during emergency. Nutritive characteristics of forages for wild animals. Adequacy of forage plants for wild and zoo animals. Diets used in captivity. Raising orphans. Nutritional melodies. . Nutrition of semi wild and semi domestic animals like mithun and yak under special topography
 
UNIT IV
Composition, presentation, sterilization, palatability, assessment and storage of companion/laboratory animal diets. companion food tables and their nutritional assessment. Mistakes and misleading information on companion food labels and labeling.
UNIT V
Nutraceuticals in companion / laboratory foods and animal foods. Nutritional deficiency diseases. Geriatric nutrition – corrective measures
 
Practical
 
Formulation and preparation of hygienic, balanced diets and feeding for companion/laboratory animals. Characteristics of ration formulation and feeding schedules wild and zoo animals. Feeding schedules for sick and orphan wild / zoo animals. Artificial and emerging feeding. General feeding habits and different feed constituents of wild and captive animals. Research methodology of companion/laboratory animals. Processing and storage of companion/laboratory diets. Visit to Zoological parks and wildlife sanctuary.
ANN 608 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION  (1+3)
 
Objective
Planning and designing of experiments, use of various techniques in estimating chemical and bio-chemical constituents in feeds, fodders, blood, milk, rumen liquor, meat, wool etc.
 
Theory
UNIT I
Principles of animal experimentation. Specialized feed compounding. Introduction and principle of GLC, HPLC, AAS, tracer technique, flame photometer, NIR, SF6, amino acid analyzer.
 
UNIT II
Importance and principle of various techniques in estimating chemical and biochemical constituents and toxic principles in feeds, fodders. Importance, principles and procedures for estimating chemical and biochemical constituents in blood, milk, rumen liquor, meat, wool etc.
 
Practical
 
Cell Wall partitioning, Lignin as internal marker in feedstuffs, Mineral estimation by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, In-vitro/in-sacco determination of digestibility and digestion kinetics. Determination of energy content of feed, faeces and urine using bomb calorimeter. Methodology for quality improvement of animal feeds. Interpretation and presentation of results.
Tracer techniques  in Animal Nutrition. Quality evaluation of silage and hay, feed energy estimation; nitrate, urea, aflatoxin, salmonella, glycosides and sedimentation tests. Blood profile, meat quality.
  
ANN 609 NON CONVENTIONAL FEEDSTUFFS AND TOXIC CONSTITUENTS / ANTIMETABOLITES IN ANIMAL FEEDSTUFF (2+1)
 
Objective
To understand the importance of alternate feeds and their use in augmenting profit in livestock farm. Different toxins present in feed stuffs, their properties and detoxification techniques.
 
Theory
UNIT I
Present and future feed requirements and current availability for livestock and poultry. Use of non-traditional feeds – By-products of agricultural, industrial, food processing units and forest by-products. Evaluation by chemical and biological methods. Formulation of economical rations. Level of inclusion of various non conventional feeds in livestock ration
 
UNIT II
Classification of toxic principles in animal feedstuffs. Chemico-physical properties of various toxins. Effect of toxins on biological system and nutrients utilization in different species of livestock. Detoxification of toxin principles  by various physical, chemical and biological techniques. Insecticide and pesticide residue detection.
 
Practical
Estimation of various protease inhibitors; tannins; and mycotoxins in various feeds and feedstuffs. Nitrates, HCN, oxalates, insecticide and pesticide residues, saponins, Gossypol, mimosine, heavy metals.
 
  
Ph.D. Courses (ICAR):
 
 
CODE
 
COURSE TITLE
CREDITS
ANN 701
MODERN CONCEPTS OF FEEDING
RUMINANTS AND FORAGE UTILIZATION
3+0
 
ANN 702
MODERN CONCEPTS OF FEEDING
MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS
2+0
 
ANN 703
NUTRITION AND RUMEN FERMENTATION
1+1
ANN 704
ADVANCES IN MICRONUTRIENTS
1+0
ANN 705
ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN NUTRITION AND
RESEARCH
1+2
 
ANN 706
ADVANCES IN FEED TECHNOLOGY
1+1
ANN 707
CLINICAL NUTRITION
1+1
ANN 708
NUTRIENT AND DRUG INTERACTION
2+0
ANN 709
NEW FEED RESOURCES AND TOXICANTS IN
ANIMAL FEEDING
2+0
 
ANN 791
DOCTORAL SEMINAR I
1+0
ANN 792
DOCTORAL SEMINAR II
1+0
ANN 799
DOCTORAL RESEARCH
45
 
Syllabus Ph.D. details:
 
ANN 701 MODERN CONCEPTS OF FEEDING RUMINANTS AND FORAGE
UTILAZIATION (3+0)
 
Objective
To impart knowledge of modern concepts in nutrient requirement and feeding and enhanced utilization in ruminant and recent development in analysis of forages.
 
Theory
UNIT I
Developments in ruminant digestive physiology – Energy protein requirement and measurement – Requirements of other nutrients. Importance of energy and protein quantity and quality Feed input and milk output relationship.
 
UNIT II
Concept of limiting amino acids for high yielders. Strategic feeding of high yielding dairy cows and meat producing ruminants. Concept of Phase feeding. Bypass Nutrient technology. Feeding during stress. Nutrition-immunity interaction. Designer milk and meat. Rumen manipulation to reduce methanogenesis. Nitrogen oxide emission and heavy metal residues. Metabolic
profile tests.
 
UNIT III
Use of conserved forages in ruminant feeding. Chemical composition of common and newer forage – Factors affecting nutritive value of commonly available grasses, pastures, silage, hay and crop residues, voluntary intake of fodder at different stages of growth.
Newer methods of forage evaluation – calculated in vitro ME and DOMD by using prediction equations. Merits and demerits of using leaf protein. Top feeds and their effective utilization – pasture consumption and evaluation studies.
 
UNIT IV
Seminars on current topics of special interest.
ANN 702 MODERN CONCEPTS OF FEEDING MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS (2+0)
 
Objective
To impart knowledge on modern concepts in nutrient requirement and feeding of monogastric livestock
 
Theory
UNIT I
Nutritional factors affecting egg quality and hatchability in poultry. Feeding for designer ggs.Role of essential fatty acids, amino acids imbalance, toxicity and interactions in monogastrics
 
UNIT II
Developments in digestive physiology of swine – equines – Measurement of protein and energy requirements – Influence of processing of feeds and fodders in mono-gastric animal nutrition.
UNIT III
Modern concepts of amino acid nutrition at various physiological status – Role of vitamins and minerals in health and disease. Advances in new generation feeds and feed additives.
 
ANN 703 NUTRITION AND RUMEN FERMENTATION  (1+1)
 
Objective
To impart knowledge on nutrient requirements for neonatal and post natal development of livestock, recent concepts of rumen fermentation and its manipulation
Theory
UNIT I
Nutrient requirements for fertility and gestation, prenatal growth and foetal nutrition. Post-natal feeding, growth and developments – Body composition at prenatal and postnatal stages, abnormalities due to malnutrition.
 
UNIT II
Rumen microflora and microfauna –considerations and limitations in relation to ruminant feeding practices. Manipulation of rumen fermentation – physical, chemical and biological means – Role of sulphur and phosphorus in rumen fermentation –. Modeling ruminant digestion and metabolism – principles.
 
Practical
Microbial and protozoal count, Determination TVFA by chromatography. Estimation of ammonia in rumen liquor – study on protection of protein in relation to degradability ,Rumen fermentation products – Artificial rumen techniques. Rumen enzyme assay.
 
 
ANN 704 ADVANCES IN MICRONUTRIENTS (1+0)
 
Objective
To impart knowledge on nutrient requirements for neonatal and post natal development of livestock, recent concepts of rumen fermentation and its manipulation
 
Theory
UNIT I
Developments in the study of major, minor and toxic minerals in animals – animal – soil – plant interrelationship – concepts in absorption and transport of micronutrients – Kinetics and metabolism physiological and biochemical interactions among nutrients – interrelationship of minerals and vitamins in relation to metabolism and requirements – mineral toxicities in relation to livestock feeding.
UNIT II
Developments in vitamin and mineral requirements for growth, reproduction and lactation – Identification and correction of deficiencies and toxicities of minerals in farm animals.
UNIT III
Bio-availability of macro and micro nutrients – factors affecting the bio-availability of minerals – bio-marker concept for mineral requirement for correction of deficiencies and toxicity of minerals.
 
ANN 705 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN NUTRITION AND RESEARCH (1+2)
Objective
To impart knowledge on use of advanced analytical techniques in nutrition research.
 
Theory
UNIT I
Developments in analysis of nutrients in feeds. Estimation of toxins and mycotoxins – Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometer, HPLC – Enzymatic methods of feed analysis – Isotopes in nutrition research – Feed microscopy – Analytical aspect of feeds and fodders using N.I.R.
UNIT II
Faecal innoculum as alternative to rumen liquor in in vitro studies – Degradability of feeds by various techniques – rates of VFA and microbial production.
Practical
Estimation of major, minor and toxic minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Estimation of mycotoxin by HPLC, Estimation of oxalate, nitrates, tannin and mimosine, VFA fractionation by GC. SF6 Technique, amino acid analyzer, NIR, HPLC, Purine derivatives, milk fat and FA estimation.
 
ANN 706 ADVANCES IN FEED TECHNOLOGY (1+1)
Objective
To impart knowledge on modern feed processing methods and automated feed plant layout
Theory
UNIT I
Feed and fodder processing – Particle size reduction – bulk density –processing of grains and oil seeds – processing of roughages – feed plant layout and design – feed plant management – storage of feeds.
UNIT II
Non conventional feed resources – Formulation of concentrates, premixes and rations – improvement of nutritive value of poor quality roughages – liquid feed supplements. Solid state fermentation (SSF) technology.
Practical
Feed microscopy tests for certain adulterants and anti nutritional factors, Feed plant design– processing of roughages – feed plant sanitation, Wild seed identification – qualitative tests for rancidity, minerals and adulterants, Visit to commercial feed plant.
 
ANN 707 CLINICAL NUTRITION (1+1)
Objective
Impact of nutrition on health, immunity, digestive/metabolic disorders, reproductive performance, bacterial and parasitic infestations, organic toxins and stress nutrition, feeding management of sick animals.
 
Theory
UNIT I
Nutritional factors responsible for disorders. Metabolic disorders and production diseases in farm animals. Prevention of metabolic disorders – recommended dietary regimen.
UNIT II
Effect of coccidiostats and dietary antigens in early weaned livestock. Nutrition in relation to emerging diseases. Effect of nutrition on fertility, reproduction and lactation. Toxic minerals and counter action (Selenium and fluorine).
UNIT III
Stress nutrition and post surgical nutrition. Nutritional manipulation and feeding of sick animals. Pesticides residues in feeds and fodders and their impact on animal health, reproduction and production.
 
Practical
Determination of blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, SGOT SGPT, total protein, cholesterol and ketone bodies, Metabolic profile tests.
 
ANN 708  NUTRIENT AND DRUG INTERACTION (2+0)
Objective
To impart knowledge on the effects of drugs on nutrient utilisation
Theory
UNIT I
Effects of drugs on digestion and absorption of nutrients – Drugs and intestinal microbial interaction – Effect of drugs and antibiotics as feed additives. Physiological effects – Use and abuse.
UNIT II
Nutrients in drug detoxification – Antagonists – Hormones and their effect on growth and carcass qualities. Drug residues in animal products – milk and meat – effect on food change. Legal aspects of drugs in animal products.
 
ANN 709 NEW FEED RESOURCES AND TOXICANTS IN ANIMAL FEEDING (2+0)
Objective
To impart knowledge on newer feed resources and their value in animal feeding and various toxic substances prevalent in feeds and fodders.
Theory
UNIT I
Demand and availability of feed – formulation of database in computer – strategy in food animal production – agricultural by-products – Agroindustrial by-products, Farm waste, crop residues, organic wastes of animal origin. Slaughter house waste, industrial waste and their feeding value in animals.
UNIT II
Processing to enhance feed utilization and availability. Possible health hazards due to waste utilization-chemical and nutritional changes in waste product due to processing. Quality standard and their acceptance.
UNIT III
Naturally occurring toxicants – Toxicants of plants and non-microbial origin. Naturally occurring alkaloids, mycotoxins and their toxicity – Acquired toxicants, pesticides, weedicides and heavy metals.
 
UNIT IV
Effect of toxins on rumen fermentation and nutrient utilization. Methods of detoxification. Food and feed contaminants – their impact on animal performance.

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