PG Syllabus

M.V.Sc. Programme in Veterinary Microbiology as per ICAR guidelines
 
Minimum Credit Requirements:
 
S.N.
Subject
Credit Requirement
1
Major
28
2
Minor + Supporting
11
3
Seminar
01
4
Research
20
 
TOTAL
60
 Major / Minor / Supporting Subjects:
 
Major Subject
Veterinary Microbiology
 
Minor + Supporting Subject
Animal Biotechnology
Veterinary Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine
Veterinary Pathology
Veterinary Public Health
Veterinary Biochemistry
  COURSE STRUCTURE
 
S. N.
Course No.
Title
Credits
Semester
1
VMC 601
Bacteriology-I
3+1=4
I
2
VMC 602
Bacteriology-II
3+1=4
II
3
VMC 603
Veterinary Mycology
1+1=2
II
4
VMC 604
General Virology
2+1=3
I
5
VMC 605
Systematic Animal Virology
3+1=4
II
6
VMC 606
Principles of Immunology
2+1=3
I
7
VMC 607
Vaccinology
2+0=2
III
8
VMC 608
Diagnostics of Infectious Diseases
1+2=3
III
9
VMC 609
Techniques in Microbiology &
Immunology
0+3=3
I
10
VMC 691
Master’s Seminar
0+1=1
III
11
VMC 699
Master’s Research
20
III & IV
  Semester-wise distribution of courses
 
S. N.
Course No.
Title
Credits
SEMESTER I
1
VMC 601
Bacteriology-I
3+1=4
2
VMC 604
General Virology
2+1=3
3
VMC 606
Principles of Immunology
2+1=3
4
VMC 609
Techniques in Microbiology &
Immunology
0+3=3
SEMESTER II
5
VMC 602
Bacteriology-II
3+1=4
6
VMC 603
Veterinary Mycology
1+1=2
7
VMC 605
Systematic Animal Virology
3+1=4
SEMESTER III
8
VMC 607
Vaccinology
2+0=2
9
VMC 608
Diagnostics of Infectious Diseases
1+2=3
10
VMC 691
Master’s Seminar
0+1=1
SEMESTER IV
11
VMC 699
Master’s Research
20
 Semester-wise distribution of credits
 
S. N.
Semester
Major
Minor + Supporting
Total
Course work
Research
1
I
13
3
16
2
II
10
6
16
3
III
6
5
2
13
4
IV
15
15
 
TOTAL
29
20
11
60
  Bacteriology I
 
Course No.
VMC- 601
Title
Bacteriology I
Credits
3+1 = 4
Semester
I
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
UNIT I
1
Historical introduction
2-3
Cellular organization, genetic & chemical characteristics of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
4-5
Classification and nomenclature of bacteria; Genetic characterization and Numerical Taxonomy
6
Identification of bacteria; classic methods, molecular techniques
7-9
Structure, composition and functions of bacterial cell and its different components viz. cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nuclear material, inclusions appendages like capsule, flagella, fimbriae, endospores, plasmids etc. 
10
Physiology and Nutrition; Nutritional types, nutritional and physiological requirements
11-13
Bacterial metabolism: Bioenergetics, generation of energy and transfer, oxidation-reduction system, membrane transport, electron transport system, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, carbohydrate, protein, lipid metabolism, biosynthesis of macromolecules
14-15
Bacterial growth; measurement of bacterial growth, bacterial growth curve
 
UNIT II
16-18
Determinants of Pathogenicity and its molecular basis: Invasiveness, invasins, toxigenesis, exotoxins and endotoxins and mechanism of their action, adherence, colonization, evasion of host defenses
19
Bacteriophages: temperate and virulent phages; lysogeny and lysogenic conversion
20-22
Bacterial genetics: Bacterial variation; phenotypic and genotypic variations, mutations and mutagenesis, gene transfer mechanisms – conjugation, transformation, transduction, Plasmids, transposons, cosmids, insertion sequences, transferable drug resistance, Recombinant DNA technology
23
Antimicrobial agents: Classes of antimicrobials and mechanism of action.
 
UNIT III
 
Systematic study of following bacteria with respect to their taxonomic position, distribution, morphology and staining characters, growth requirements and characteristics, antigenic structure, virulence factors, pathogenicity, diagnosis, immunity and control
24
Family: Enterobacteriaceae Classification and General features
25-26
Genus Escherichia, E. coli,
27
Genus Shigella, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei
28-30
Genus Salmonella, S. enterica, S. enterica subsp. enterica, Serotypes of subsp. enterica Typhi, Paratyphi A, Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Gallinarum, Pullorum, Dublin, Abortusequi, Abortusovis
31
Genus Proteus, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris
 
Genus Morganella, M. morganii, Genus Providencia
32
Genus Yersinia, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica
33
Genus Klebsiella, K. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca
34
Genus Enterobacter, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae
 
Genus Citrobacter, C. freundii, C. Rodentium
 
Genus Edwardsiella, E. tarda, E. ictaluri
35
Genus Vibrio, V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. metschnikovii
36
Genus Aeromonas, A. hydrophila, A. Salmonicida
 
Genus Plesiomonas, P. Shigelloides
37
Genus Pseudomonas, P. aeruginosa
38
Genus Burkholderia, B. mallei, B. pseudomallei
39
Genus Neisseria, N. gonorrheae, N. Meningitidis, N. canis
 
Genus Moraxella, M. bovis, M. ovis
40
Genus Mannheimia, M. haemolytica
41-42
Genus Pasteurella, P. multocida, Other Pasteurella species
43
Genus Haemophilus, H. influenzae, H. parasuis, H. paragallinarum,
 
Genus Histophilus, H. somni
 
Genus Taylorella, T. equigenitalis
44-45
Genus Brucella, B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis
46
Genus Francisella, F. tularensis
 
Genus Legionella, L. pneumophila
47
Genus Campylobacter, C. fetus ssp fetus, C. fetus ssp. venerealis, C. jejuni ssp. jejuni
48
Genus Helicobacter, H. pylori, H. canis, H. pullorum, H.felis
  PRACTICAL
 
S. N.
Practical
1
Morphological characterization: Microscopy, stains and staining methods
2-3
Isolation: Preparation of culture media, processing of specimen for isolation, isolation in culture, anaerobic culture techniques
4
Measurement of bacterial growth: Total count, Turbidometric methods, viable count-standard plate count
5-6
Cell fractionation: cell wall preparations, extraction of LPS, extraction of flagellar antigens
7
Preservation of bacterial cultures
 
Detailed and comparative study of following bacteria with reference to morphology, biochemical reactions, physiology, serology and pathogenicity. Isolation from field materials, identification and characterization.
8
Escherichia coli
9
Salmonella spp.
10
Shigella spp.
11
Proteus, Klebsiella and other members of Enterobacteriaceae
12
Pseudomonas and Burkholderia
13
Pasteurella and Mannheimia
14
Moraxella, Taylorella, Haemophilus
15
Brucella
16
Campylobacter and Helicobacter
 Suggested Readings:
 
S. Peter Borriello, Patrick R. Murray and Guido Funke. Topley andWilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Bacteriology Volumes I & II. Hodder Arnold
 
Glen Sonder J & Karen W Post 2005. Veterinary Microbiology: Bacterial and Fungal Agents of Animal Diseases. ColdSpringHarbor Lab. Press.
 
Prescot LM, Harley JP & Klen DA. 2005. Microbiology. Wm. C. Brown Publ.
 
Tortora GJ, Funke BR & Case CL. 2004. Microbiology: An Introduction. Benjamin/Cummins Publ.
 
C.L. Gyles, J. .F Prescott, J.G. Songer, C.O. Thoen. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. 2004 Wiley
 
 Bacteriology II
 
Course No.
VMC- 602
Title
Bacteriology II
Credits
3+1 = 4
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Lecture Nos.
Topic
 
Systematic study of following bacteria with respect to their taxonomic position, distribution, morphology and staining characters, growth requirements and characteristics, antigenic structure, virulence factors, pathogenicity, diagnosis, immunity and control
UNIT I
 
Gram positive cocci Family: Micrococcaceae
1 – 3
Genus Staphylococcus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, S. hyicus, Other Staphylococci
4 -7
Genus Streptococcus, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. equi, Other Streptococci
8
Genus Diplococcus, Diplococcus pneumoniae
 
Endospore forming Gram positive rods & cocci Family: Bacillaceae
9 – 11
Genus Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus
12 – 15
Genus Clostridium, Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum, Other Clostridia
 
Spirochaetes Family: Spirochaetaceae
16 – 17
Genus Borrelia, Borrelia anserine, Borrelia burgdorferi
 
Family: Leptospiraceae
18 – 19
Genus Leptospira, Pathogenic Genomospecies of leptospires viz.  L. alexanderi, L. borgpetersenii, L. fainei, L. inadai, L. Interrogans etc. and their serovars
20
Spirillum minus, Streptobacillus moniliformis
21
Genus Brachyspira, B. hyodysenteriae
 
Coryneform bacteria
22 – 24
Genus Corynebacterium, C. diphtheriae, C. renale, C. pilosum, C. pseudotuberculosis, Other Corynebacteria
25
Genus Rhodococcus, R. equi
26
Genus Dermatophilus, D. congolensis, D. Chelonae
27
Genus Nocardia, N. Asteroides, N. Brasiliensis, N. Farcinia,
28
Genus Actinomyces, A. bovis
29
Genus Arcanobacterium, A. pyogenes
 
UNIT II
 
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
30 – 33
Genus Mycobacterium, M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. avium subsp. avium
M. avium subsp. Paratuberculosis, Other Mycobacteria
 
Mycoplasmas
34 – 36
Genus Mycoplasma, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Small colony), M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (Large colony), M. agalactiae, M. bovis, M. bovigenitalium
M. capricolum subsp. Capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae
M. gallisepticum, Other Mycoplasmas
37
Genus Ureaplasma, U. urealyticum, U. diversum
38
Genus Acholeplasma, A. Laidlawii, Genera Thermoplasma, Anaeroplasma, Spiroplasma, Genus Chlamydia
 
Rickettsia and Chlamydia
39 – 40
C. trachomatis, C. suis, Genus Chlamydophila, C. psittacii
41 – 43
Genus Rickettsia, R. Rickettsii, R. felis, R. conorii, R. typhi, R. prowazekii
Genus Orienta, O. Tsutsugamushi, Genus Coxiella, C. burnetti
Genus Ehrlichia, E. canis, E. ruminantium
 
UNIT III
44 – 45
Genus Listeria, L. Monocytogenes, L. ivanovii
46
Genus Erysipelothrix, E. rhusiopathiae
47 – 48
Genus Bacteroides, B. fragilis, Genus Dichelobacter, D. nodosus
Genus Fusobacterium F. necrophorum
  PRACTICAL 
S. N.
Practical
 
Detailed and comparative study of following bacteria with reference to morphology, biochemical reactions, physiology, serology and pathogenicity. Isolation from field materials, identification and characterization.
1
Staphylococcus aureus
2
Other Staphylococcal species
3
Streptococcus pyogenes
4
Other Streptococci
5
Bacillus anthracis
6
Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium perfringenes
7
Other clostridial species
8
Corynebacterium spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes
9
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
10
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
11
Mycoplasma spp.
12
Borrelia and Leptospira
13
Listeria monocytogenes
14
Rickettsia
15
Chlamydia
16
Actinomyces, Erysipelothrix, Nocardia
 Suggested Readings:
 
S. Peter Borriello, Patrick R. Murray and Guido Funke. Topley andWilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Bacteriology Volumes I & II. Hodder Arnold
 
Glen Sonder J & Karen W Post 2005. Veterinary Microbiology: Bacterial and Fungal Agents of Animal Diseases. ColdSpringHarbor Lab. Press.
 
Prescot LM, Harley JP & Klen DA. 2005. Microbiology. Wm. C. Brown Publ.
 
Tortora GJ, Funke BR & Case CL. 2004. Microbiology: An Introduction. Benjamin/Cummins Publ.
 
C.L. Gyles, J. .F Prescott, J.G. Songer, C.O. Thoen. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. 2004 Wiley
  
Veterinary Mycology
 
Course No.
VMC  603
Title
Veterinary Mycology
Credits
1+1 = 2
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
Sr. No.
Topic
UNIT I
1.
Historical introduction, Evolution of fungi, Milestones of Medical Mycology 
2.
Fungal phylogeny , Phylogenetic methods, Classification of fungi
3.
Morphology, structure and composition of fungi
4.
Growth, cultural characters of fungi, Collection of specimen, identification of fungi
5.
Physiology, Nutrition and Reproduction in fungi, Immunology of pathogenic fungi.
UNIT II
 
Systematic study of following animal mycoses including classification, morphology, structure, reproduction, growth, cultural characters, habitat, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, immunity
6
Aspergillosis
7
Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis
8
Epizootic lymphangitis, Mycetomas
9
Sporotrichosis, Histoplasmosis
10
Blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, haplomycosis
11
Rhinosporidiosis, zygomycosis,
12
Mycotic abortion, mycotic mastitis
13
Mycotic dermatitis, Dermatophytoses
14
Mycotic dermatitis, Dermatophytoses contd.
15
Mycotoxicosis
16
Mycotoxicosis contd.
  PRACTICAL
 
Sr. No.
Practical
1.
Preparation of media, solutions, stains, reagents etc.
2.
Collection, preservation and transport of mycological specimens to the laboratory
3.
Direct microscopic examination of specimens by KOH mount
Processing of specimens for isolation of fungi
4.
Study of morphology, structure, spores, cultural characteristics of fungi.
 
Study of following pathogenic fungi with respect to their morphology, structure, cultural characteristics, identification methods
5
Dermatophytes
6
Dermatophytes contd.
7
Aspergillus
8
Aspergillus contd.
9
Candidiasis, Coccidioidomycosis
10
Cryptococcosis, Blastomycosis 
11
Histoplasmosis, Sporotrichosis
12
Mycotic mastitis
13
Mycotic abortions
14
Mytoxicosis: Aflatoxicosis
15
Mytoxicosis: Ochratoxicosis
16
Advanced techniques used in identification of fungi
 Suggested Readings
 
Glen Sonder J & Karen W Post 2005. Veterinary Microbiology: Bacterial and Fungal Agents of Animal Diseases.ColdSpringHarbor Lab. Press.
 
Essentials of Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology by Carter
  
General Virology
 
Course No.
VMC- 604
Title
General Virology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
 THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
1
History and scope of Veterinary Virology, Founders of the science of virology
2
Origin and nature of viruses
3
Viruses and their properties, Glossary of terms
4
Morphology and structure of viruses, Electron microscopy, X-rat crystallography and other techniques used in study of morphology
5
Structure of capsid, symmetry, viral envelopes, Virion structure and functional relationship
6
Biochemical  composition-Nucleic acids(DNA/RNA)Proteins,  glycoproteins, and lipids
7
stability of viral infectivity, Influence of temperature, pH, Ionic environment, Lipid solvent and detergent etc.
8
Propagation  of viruses in  laboratory animals
9
Propagation of viruses cell culture
10
Propagation  of viruses in  embryonated eggs
11
Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses,  Criteria used in classification of viruses,  Classification of viruses, Subviral agents, Prion’s etc
12
Families of DNA and RNA viruses
13
Replication of viruses, Single step growth curve,  Essential steps in multiplication: 
14
Attachment, penetration, uncoating – Strategies of replication in DNA and RNA viruses
15
Transcription,  Regulation of  transcription, post-transcriptional processing, Translation, post translation modifications 
16
Replication of viral nucleic acids, assembly,  maturation and release
17
Viral Genetics,  Mutations, Types of mutations, defective interfering mutants, mutation rates, Viral Qausispecies concept,  mutagenesis ,    Analysis of viral genes- methods and tools
18
Genetic recombination between viruses, intramolecular recombination, reassortment, reactivation. Interactions between gene products, complementation, phenotypic mixing, polyploidy, interference
19
Mapping of viral genome, methods of genome mapping, applications. Recombinant DNA technology.
20
Genetic and viral evolution, impact of evolution, genetic shift and drift.
21
Virus –cell interactions, types of interactions,  Cytocidal changes in virus infected cells, mechanisms of cell damage. Noncytocidal changes in virus infected cells, Inclusion bodies, ultrastructural changes in virus infected cells, interferons
22
Viral pathogenesis,  Route of entry and its impact,  Host specificity, tissue tropism,  Spread, Mechanism of targeting specific tissues and organs, mechanism of virus shedding
23
Viral persistence, viral strategies to evade host defense mechanisms, persistent infection and chronic damage to tissues and organs, immunopathology of viral infections, infection induced damage to immune system, autoimmune disease, hypersensitivity.
24
Pathogenesis of viral diseases: Representative models of respiratory, intestinal, lymphoreticular and haematopoietic, central nervous system, multisystem, chronic and slowly progressive viral diseases
25
Oncogenic viruses-  Cell transformation,  Oncogenes and oncoproteins,  Mechanism of activation of  Cellular oncogenes by viruses
26
Retroviruses and oncogenesis,  DNA virus oncogenesis,  Multistep oncogenesis
27
Epidemiology of viral diseases,  Computations  and databases for epidemiological analysis,  Epidemiological investigations- types, models,  Transmission of virus,  Mechanism of virus survival in nature,  influence of seasonal and managemental practices on epidemiology
28
Immune response to viruses, Cellular component of immune system, Sub-cellular component of immune system.
29
Immunological memory, Types of immune response-Active/ passive to viral infection, Immune cytolysis, neutralization, Recovery from viral infection, Immunity to reinfection
30
Viral Vaccines, Types of vaccines- Live, Inactivated, Recombinant, synthetic peptide,  genetically modified vaccines etc
31
Methods for enhancing immunogenicity, adjuvants, factors affecting vaccine efficacy and safety, passive immunization, vaccination policy, vaccination schedules, available and recommended vaccines
32
Viral Chemotherapy, Strategies for development of antivirals, different  antiviral chemotherapeutic agents and mechanism of their action, new generation antivirals
 PRACTICAL
 
Sr. No
Practical
1.
Orientation to Virology laboratory – GLP’s
2.
Equipments handling- working principles ( laminar flow, Filtrations assemblies, microscopes –inverted, fluorescent etc,)
3.
Washing and sterilization of glassware for cell culture,
4.
Preparation of media and reagents for cell culture- filtration, sterility checking etc.
5.
Preparation of primary  cell culture  e.g. chicken embryo fibroblast  etc.
6.
Sub-culturing and maintenance of cell lines
7.
Processing of clinical specimen for isolation of virus
8.
Cultivation of viruses in embryonated eggs- Allantoic and Chorioallantoic membrane routes, harvesting of virus
9.
Cultivation of viruses in embryonated eggs- Yolk sac and amniotic routes, harvesting of virus
10.
Cultivation of viruses in laboratory animals by different routes
11.
Isolation of virus in cell culture, study of cytopathic effects
12.
Titration of virus – estimation of TCID 50
13.
Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination Inhibition  test
14
Detection of viral antibodies by- SNT,
15
Detection of viral antibodies/antigen  by- AGID,CIE and ELISA
16
Detection of viral antigens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques
 Suggested Readings:
 
Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Holzmek MK and Studdert MJ. 1999 Veterinary Virology. 3rd Ed. Academic Press.
 
Achesons  NH. 2006. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology. Wiley.
Carter J and Saunders V. 2007 Virology: Principles and Applications. 1st Ed. Wiley.
 
Knipe Dm, Howley PM, GriffithDE. 2006 Field Virology . 5th Ed. Vol. I and II. Lippoincott, Williams and Wilkins
 
Mahy  BWJ and Kangaroo HO, 1996. Virological Methods Manual. Academic Press
 
 
Systematic Animal Virology
 
Course No.
VMC- 605
Title
Systematic Animal Virology
Credits
3+1 = 4
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
 
Study of following animal viruses belonging to various families with reference to viral properties, antigens, cultivation, pathogenesis, epidemiology, disease status inIndia, diagnosis, immunity and control.
1
Poxviridae
Cowpox,Buffalopox, Milker’s nodule
2
Sheep pox
3
Goat pox, Orf,
4
Fowl pox, Poxviruses affecting other animals
5
Asfaviridae
African swine fever
6
Herpesviridae
Infectious bovine rhinotrachitis, Bovine malignant catarrhal fever
7
Equine abortion, Equine Rhinopneumonitits, Equine coital exanthema 
8
Infectious laryngotrachitis, Duck plague
9
Marek’s disease
10
Pseudorabies, Herpesviruses affecting other animals
11
Adenoviridae
Infectious canine hepatitis
12
Avian adenoviruses, egg drop syndrome
13
Inclusion body hepatitis, Leechi disease
14
Parvoviridae
Canine parvovirus
15
Porcine parvovirus (SMEDI), Feline Panleukopenia
16
Papovaviridae
Papiollomatosis
17
Paramyxoviridae
Rinderpest 
18
Peste des petits ruminants 
19
Canine distemper
20
New castledisease  
21
Picornaviridae
Foot-and-mouth disease 
22
Foot and mouth disease contd.
23
Duck viral hepatitis, Avian encephalomyelitis   
24
Orthomyxoviridae
Avian influenza
25
Swine influenza
26
Equine influenza
27
Rhabdoviridae
Rabies
28
Rabies contd.
29
Vesicular stomatitis,  Ephemeral fever
30
Coronaviridae
Infectious Bronchitis
31
Transmissible Gastroenteritis
32
Calciviridae
Vesicular Exanthema virus (VEV)
33
Togaviridae
Swine fever
34
Bovine  viral  diarrhea 
35
Flaviviridae
Equine encephalitis (WEE,VEE andEEE)
36
Japanese B Encephalitis
37
Reoviridae
African Horse Sickness
38
Bluetongue
39
Rotaviruses
40
Birnaviridae
Infectious bursal disease
41
Arterivirdae
Equine arteritis, Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome
42
Retroviridae
Avian leucosis 
43
Equine infectious anemia
44
Bovine leukemia, Visna/maedi
45
Circoviridae
Chicken anemia virus (CAV)
46
Slow virus / prions diseases
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
47
Scrapie
48
Bornavirdae
Borna disease virus (BDV)
 PRACTICAL
 
Sr. No
Practical
1.
Isolation of virus in chicken embryos:Newcastledisease virus by allantoic route, study the lesions in embryos, harvesting of virus
2.
Isolation of virus in chicken embryos: Fowl pox / other poxviruses by chorioallantoic route, study the lesions in embryos, harvesting of virus
3.
Isolation of infectious bronchitis in chicken embryos, study the lesions in embryos, harvesting of virus
4.
Isolation of virus in chicken embryos contd…
5.
Isolation of virus in cell cultures:Newcastledisease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts, study the cytopathic effects (CPE)
6.
Isolation of virus in cell cultures:Newcastledisease virus in chicken embryo fibroblasts, study the cytopathic effects (CPE) contd.
7.
Isolation of virus in cell cultures: Bluetongue virus in BHK-21/Vero cell line, study the CPE
8.
Isolation of virus in cell cultures: Bluetongue virus in BHK-21/Vero cell line, study the CPE
9.
Isolation of IBR / swine fever virus in cell cultures, study the CPE
 
10.
Newcastledisease virus: Haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests
11.
Rabies: Detection of Negri bodies by Seller’s staining, fluorescent antibody technique, mouse inoculation test
12.
Infectious bursal disease: Detection of Antigen / antibody by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), detection of antibodies by neutralization test
13.
Markes’s disease: AGID, CIEP
14.
Bluetongue: detection of antibodies by AGID
15.
Rotaviruses: Latex agglutination test, Electropherotyping
16.
Foot and mouth disease: Typing of virus by ELISA
 Suggested readings:
 
Murphy FA, Gibbs EPJ, Holzmek MK and Studdert MJ. 1999 Veterinary Virology. 3rd Ed. Academic Press.
 
Achesons  NH. 2006. Fundamentals of Molecular Virology. Wiley.
 
Carter J and Saunders V. 2007 Virology: Principles and Applications. 1st Ed. Wiley.
 
Knipe Dm, Howley PM, GriffithDE. 2006 Field Virology . 5th Ed. Vol. I and II. Lippoincott, Williams and Wilkins
 
Mahy  BWJ and Kangaroo HO, 1996. Virological Methods Manual. Academic Press
 
Principles of Immunology
 
Course No.
VMC- 606
Title
Principles of Immunology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
 THEORY
 
S. N.
Topic outline
UNIT I
1
Historical development of Immunology, Introduction and scope of Veterinary Immunology
2.
Immunity: Definition, types of immunity- innate and acquired immunity etc.
3.
Phylogeny of immune system and ontogeny of haemopoetic cells.
4.
Immune system: Organs -central and peripheral lymphoid organs, Thymus, Bursa etc.
5.
Cells involved in immunity: Lymphocytes – classes, development of different types
6.
Diversity of immune responses – lymphocyte repertoires, antigenic specificities of lymphocytes and leucocytes, differentiation markers and other distinguishing characters of leukocytes
7.
Other cells involved in immunity macrophages, NK cells, null cells etc.
8.
Lymphoid cell trafficking –  lymphocyte traffic, role of lymphatics, HEVs etc.
UNIT II
9.
Antigen: Definition, properties and types of antigen, specificity of antigens, blood group antigens, Antigenic determinant / epitope,
10.
Factors influencing immunogenicity and role of adjuvants
11.
Antibodies: Immunoglobulin structure, functions and classification, classes and subclasses of Igs
12
Antibodies contd.
13.
Theories of antibody production
14.
Immunoglobulin genes and genetic basis of antibody diversity – genetic control of antibody formation
15.
Complement system: Complement components, Activation of complement by classical, alternate and mannose binding pathways.
16.
Biological activities of complement
UNIT III
17.
Major Histocompatibiity complex : Organization,  structure, functions and gene organization of different classes.
18.
T-lymphocyte : T – cell subsets, surface receptors, structure and functions
19.
Gene organization and genetic basis of diversity of T-cell surface receptors.
20
Immune response: Humoral and cellular immune response; Primary and secondary immune response
21.
Classification and properties of various cytokines
22.
Mechanism of antibody production immune regulation
23.
Immune regulation
24.
Cell mediated immune response – role of CTLs, NK cells etc.
UNIT IV
25.
Immunity against infectious agents of veterinary importance – bacteria, viruses etc. – Factors influencing resistance, specific immunity, evasion of immune response, effect of immune response on the pathogens, serodiagnosis and vaccines
26.
Immunological surveillance
27.
Immune response in cancers – bovine lymphosarcoma,  lymphoid tumors in animals and birds, role of CMI in prevention of cancers, specific role of NK cells etc.
28.
Immunological tolerance – T and B cell tolerance, clonal anergy, clonal abortion, clonal exhaustion, role of suppressor T-cells
29
Immunodeficiency and immunosuppression – causes, types and examples
30
Autoimmunity – factors, mechanisms of induction and autoimmune diseases
31
Hypersensitivity: Definition, types of hypersensitivity- immediate and delayed hypersensitivity, mechanisms of different types of hypersensitivity reactions
32
Hypersensitivity contd.
 PRACTICAL
 
S.N.
Practical / Experiment
1.
Preparation of antigen
Heat killed / formalinized whole cell bacterin
Preparation of sheep RBC suspension for raising haemolysin
2
Raising of antisera in laboratory animals
Raising antiserum against particulate antigen e.g. haemolysin against sheep RBCs
Raising antiserum against soluble antigen e.g. bovine serum albumin
3.
Collection and preservation of antisera – separation, filtration and aliquoting.
4.
Separation and concentration of immunoglobulins by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis method
5.
Quantitation of  Igs by zinc sulphate turbidity and single radial immunodiffusion
6.
Comparative study of lymphoid organs of laboratory animals and poultry
7.
Uptake of bacteria by macrophages – invitro test
8.
In-vivo uptake of bacteria in various lymphoid tissues of laboratory animals
9.
Collection and separation of PBL by using ficoll etc.
10.
Agglutination reactions: Plate / slide agglutination test, Detection of Brucella antibodies by RBPT standard tube agglutination test
11
Agglutination reactions contd.: Haemagglutination & haemagglutination-inhibition tests
12.
Agglutination reactions contd.: Indirect / passive haemagglutination test
Latex co-agglutination test
13.
Precipitation reactions:
Agar gel precipitation test, immunoelectrophoresis
14.
Complement fixation test:
Titration of complement and haemolysin, CFT proper
15.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Direct ELISA, indirect ELISA, dot ELISA etc.
16.
SDS PAGE and immunoblotting
Suggested Readings:
1.         Kindt TJ, Goldsby RA & Osborne BA. 2007. Kuby Immunology. 6th Ed.
            WH Freeman.
2.         Male D, Brostoff J, RothDB & RoittsI.2007. Immunology. 7th Ed. Mosby-
            Elsevier.
3.         Tizard IR. 2004. Veterinary Immunology: An Introduction. 7th Ed.
            Saunders/Elsevier.
   
Vaccinology
 
Course No.
VMC- 607
Title
Vaccinology
Credits
2+0 = 0
Semester
III
 
S. N.
Topic
UNIT I
1
History of veterinary vaccinology
2
Classification of vaccines
3
Comparison of major types of vaccines
4
Components of vaccines: immunogens – bacteria, toxoids, viruses etc.
5
Adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems – delivery of particulate antigens through liposomes and microspheres, protein cochelates
6
Stabilizers, preservatives and vehicles used in vaccine preparation
7
Quality of  a vaccine – definitions, methods in determining quality of a vaccine, quality control and testing
8
Vaccine development –  need for the vaccine, cost effectiveness of the vaccine under large scale vaccination programme
9
Stages of vaccine development – identifying the disease entity, molecular epidemiological data, preparation of an immunogenic candidate, laboratory trials, scaling up procedures, shelf life, stability studies etc.
10
Clinical trials under controlled and field conditions, regulatory requirements
UNIT II
11
Traditional vaccines – live, killed vaccines and toxoids
12
Methods of preparation of traditional vaccines: bacterins, toxoids and  viral vaccines
13
Maintenance of the microorganisms/viruses in maximum titre in the laboratory
14
Maintenance of vaccine strains of bacteria in suitable media
15
Passaging of viruses in embryonated eggs or cell culture
16
Preservation and monitoring of microorganisms in seed lot systems,
17
Methods of inactivation of bacteria or viruses for preparation of vaccine – by heat, chemicals and radiation
18
Attenuation of pathogenic bacteria – by  serial passage and subculture in media
19
Attenuation of viruses by serial passage in cell culture or embyonated eggs
UNIT III
20
Modern vaccines: subunit vaccines, synthetic vaccines, rDNA vaccines, marker vaccine, DNA, and edible vaccines, etc.
21
Novel immunomodulators and vaccine delivery – using nanotechnology
 
S. N.
Topic
22
Novel methods of  vaccine construction – virtual laboratory experiments involving proteomics, genomics, synthetic chemistry.
23
Recombinant DNA technology
24
rDNA technology in preparation of candidate vaccines
25
Multivalent chimeric vaccines using viral vectors such as fowl pox or vaccinia
UNIT IV
26
Vaccine formulation – as per pharmacopeal requirements – titre of the antigen, amount of adjuvant, stabilizers, preservatives in the final product.
27
Preservation techniques to maintain good antigen quality- Ex. Freeze drying, etc.
28
Vaccine stability – shelf life studies at different temperatures and efficacy tests in laboratory animals
29
Importance of cold chain and vaccine failures, logistic problems involved in transport and use of vaccines.
30
Immunization schedules of vaccines in various species of animals and poultry with respect to bacterial and viral vaccines.
31
Strategies in disease control and eradication by vaccination – serosurveillance and seromonitoring using ELISA and other assays
32
GMPs, quality control of conventional vis-à-vis recombinant vaccines
 Suggested Readings:
 
1.         Dodds WJ & Schulz R. (Eds). 1999. Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics.
            Vol. 41 (Advances in Veterinary Medicine) 1st Ed. Academic Press.
2          Levine MM, Kaper JB, Rappuoli R, Liu MA & Good MF. 2004. New
            Generation Vaccines. 3rd Ed. Marcel-Dekker.
3.         Pastoret PP, Blancou J, Vannier C & Verschueren C. 1997. Veterinary
            Vaccinology. Elsevier.
 
 Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
 
Course No.
VMC- 608
Title
Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Credits
1+2 = 3
Semester
III
 THEORY
 
Sr. No.
Topic
 
UNIT I
1.
Diagnosis of infectious diseases: an overview
 
Principles and application of serodiagnostic methods:
2.
Agglutination-reaction based tests
3.
Precipitation-reaction based tests
4.
Complement fixation test
5
Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase
6
Enzyme immunoassays
7
Radioimmunoassays
 
            UNIT II
 
Principle and applications of molecular diagnostic tests
8
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
9
Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR)
11
Other types of PCRs
12
Southern blotting
13
Northern blotting
14
Western blotting, Dot-blot
15
DNA diagnostics versus serodiagnostics
16
Development and validation of diagnostic tests
PRACTICALS
 
Sr. No.
Practical
 
Serodiagnostic tests for infectious diseases
1.
Agglutination tests – Bacterial slide and tube agglutination test.
2.
Microtitre plate agglutination
3.
Precipitation tests: Agar gel immunodiffusion test
4.
Counter immunoelectrophoresis
5.
Passive hemagglutination
6.
Passive hemagglutination
7.
Hemagglutination inhibition test
8.
Latex agglutination test
9.
Complement fixation test: Titration of haemolysin, complement
10.
Complement fixation test
11.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent immunoassays: Direct ELISA, dot-ELISA
12.
Indirect ELISA,SandwichELISA
13.
Immunofluorescence: Direct and Indirect
14
Immunoperoxidase technique
15
Immuno-electron microscopy
16
Virus neutralization test, Serum neutralization test
17
Toxin-antitoxin neutralization test
 
Molecular diagnostic techniques:
18
Protein profiling of infectious agents by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
19
Protein profiling of infectious agents by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
20
Antigen profiling of infectious agents by immunoblotting
21
Antigen profiling of infectious agents by immunoblotting
22
Isolation of DNA from infectious agents
23
Assessment of integrity of DNA and its quantification
24
Isolation of RNA from infectious agents and its quantification
25
Nucleic hybridization techniques: Southern Blot
26
Nucleic hybridization techniques: Northern Blot
27
Detection of infectious agent nucleic acids by PCR
28
Detection of infectious agents by nested PCR
29
Real time PCR
30
Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)
31
Detection of infectious agents by PCR-RFLP analysis
32
Detection of infectious agents by PCR-RFLP analysis
 Suggested Readings:
 
1.         Detrick B & Hamilton RG. (Eds). 2006. Manual of Molecular and Clinical
Laboratory Immunology. 7th Ed. American Society for Microbiology.
 
2.         Rose NR, Friedman H & Fahey JL. (Eds). 1986. Manual of Clinical
Laboratory Immunology. American Society for Microbiology.
 
3.          DM. 1986. Handbook of Experimental Immunology. Vol. IV. Blackwell.
 
  Techniques in Microbiology and Immunology
 
Course No.
VMC  609
Title
Techniques in Microbiology & Immunology
Credits
0+3 = 3
Semester
I
  
Practical Nos.
Name of Experiment
1 – 2
Preparation of different media used in Bacteriology, Mycology and Virology
3 – 4
Collection, preservation and transportation  of specimens for microbiological analysis
5 – 8
Isolation and identification of bacteria: Direct microscopic examination e.g. Anthrax, HS, TB, BQ; Isolation in pure culture; Identification based on study of morphology & staining, growth characteristics on different media, biochemical properties, serological identification  etc.
9 – 11
Isolation and identification of fungi: Direct microscopic examination of specimens; Processing of specimens; Isolation in pure cultures
Study of morphology, cultural characteristics, biochemical tests.
12 – 13
Antibiotic and Antifungal drug sensitivity of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi): Drug sensitivity test by disc diffusion method, Determining MIC
14 – 16
Plasmid profiling: Extraction of plasmids by lysis of cells; Agarose gel electrophoresis; Estimation of molecular weights; Curing of plasmids
17 – 18
Maintenance and preservation of bacteria and fungi: Stock culture collections; Preservation methods; Short and long term preservation at low temperatures Cryopreservation and freeze drying
19 – 21
Pathogenicity test: Inoculation of laboratory animals by different route; Study the symptoms and lesions of disease; Reisolation and identification of organisms from inoculated animals
22 – 23
Maintenance of cell lines, subculturing, harvesting cells, cryopreservation and reconstitution of cells
24 – 25
Infection of cell cultures / cell lines with virus; Study cytopathic effects
Detection of virus in cell cultures; Harvesting of virus
26 – 28
Concentration and purification of animal viruses: Liberation of virus from infected cells by techniques viz.  sonication, freezing thawing, chemical methods, Differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and ultra filtration, etc.
29 – 30
Storage of animal viruses by freeze drying and ultra freezing.
31 – 32
Biophysical and biochemical characterization of animal viruses
33 – 35
Molecular characterization of viral protein by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, PCR and RT PCR for detection of viral nucleic acids
36 – 37
Purification immunoglobulins  by salt precipitation and chromatographic techniques
38 – 39
Anti-species antibody production:
40 – 42
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen and antibody detection
43 – 44
Isolation of neutrophils and peritoneal macrophage. Demonstration of phagocytic activity and calculating phagocytic index
45 – 46
Lymphocyte separation and lymphocyte proliferation
47 – 48
Tuberculin-type delayed type hypersensitivity reaction for detection of cell mediated immune response in diagnosis of TB, Johnes disease etc.
 Suggested Readings
 
1.  Coligan JE, Kruisbeek AM, Margulies DH, Shevach EM & Strober W.
     2003. Current Protocols in Immunology. 3rd Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
 
2.  Detrick B & Hamilton RG. (Eds). 2006. Manual of Molecular and Clinical
    Laboratory Immunology. 7th Ed. American Society for Microbiology.
 
3.  Hay FC & Westwood OMR. 2002. Practical Immunology. 4th Ed. Blackwell.
 
4.  Mahy BWJ & Kangaro HO. 1996. Virology Methods Manual. Academic Press.
 
5.  Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B & Carter GR. 1994. Clinical Veterinary
    Microbiology. Wolfe Publ. 
Ph.D. Programme in Veterinary Microbiology as per ICAR guidelines
   
Minimum Credit Requirements:
  
S.N.
Subject
Credit Requirement
1
Major
17
2
Minor + Supporting
11
3
Seminar
02
4
Research
45
 
TOTAL
75
  Major / Minor / Supporting Subjects:
  
Major Subject
Veterinary Microbiology
 
Minor + Supporting Subject
Animal Biotechnology
Veterinary Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine
Veterinary Pathology
Veterinary Public Health
Veterinary Biochemistry
 COURSE STRUCTURE
 
S.N.
Course No.
Title
Credits
Semester
1
VMC 701
Advances in Bacteriology
2+1=3
I
2
VMC 702
Advances in Mycology
2+1=3
I
3
VMC 703
Bacterial Genetics
2+1=3
I
4
VMC 704
Microbial Toxins
2+1=3
II
5
VMC 705
Molecular Determinants of Bacterial Pathogenesis
2+1=3
II
6
VMC 706
Advances in Virology
2+1=3
I
7
VMC 707
Molecular and Genetic Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis
2+1=3
II
8
VMC 708
Structure Function Relationship of DNA
and RNA Viruses
3+0=3
II
9
VMC 709
Oncogenic Viruses
2+0=2
III
10
VMC 710
Slow Viral Infections and Prions
2+0=2
III
11
VMC 711
Molecular Immunology
2+1=3
I
12
VMC 712
Advances in Cellular Immunology
2+1=3
I
13
VMC 713
Cytokines and Immunomodulators
2+0=2
II
14
VMC 714
Advances in Vaccinology
2+0=2
III
15
VMC 715
Advances in Immunodiagnostics
1+1=2
III
16
VMC 716
Modern Immunotechnology
1+2=3
III
17
VMC 717
Current Topics in Infection and Immunity
3+0=3
III
18
VMC 718
Veterinary Microbial Biotechnology
2+1=3
II
19
VMC 790
Special Problem
0+2=2
IV
20
VMC 791
Doctoral Seminar I
1+0=1
II
21
VMC 792
Doctoral Seminar II
1+0=1
III
22
VMC 799
Doctoral Research
45
 
 Semester-wise distribution of credits:
 
Semester Major Minor Research Total
I 6 3 9
II 7 3 10
III 6 5 11
IV 15 15
V 15 15
VI 15 15
TOTAL 19 11 45 75
 TEACHING SCHEDULES
Advances in Bacteriology
 
Course No.
VMC- 701
Title
Advances in Bacteriology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
Advanced studies on cytology, biochemical activities, antigenic structure and molecular biology of bacteria
  • Structure and functions of cell wall of Gram positive bacteria, Peptidoglycan, Teichoic acid
  • Structure anf functions of cell wall of Gram negative bacteria, LPS, Outer membrane protein, ECA.
  • Biosynthesis of cell walls.
  • Surface appendages: Capsule, flagella, fimbriae their structure composition and synthesis.
  • Bacterial spores: structure, composition, sporulation, germination
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
Advanced studies on pathogenicity, immunology and serology of bacteria:
  • Cell surface associated virulence mechanisms, role in prevention of phagocytosis, adherence to mucosal surface etc.
  • Other virulence factors viz. exotoxins and endotoxins
  • Bacterial antigens and immunogens: Surface structures as antigens, surface protective antigens.
  • Types and functions of bacterial components as adjuvants, their chemical structure, mechanism of action and uses
16
 
PRACTICAL
 
3
Biochemical, physiological and pathogenesis studies of various bacterial diseases:
  • Cell wall preparation
  • Extraction of LPS from E. coli and characterization
  • Extraction of teichoic acid and its characterization
  • Extraction of surface antigen using Triton X-100, SDS etc and their characterization
  • Demonstration of fimbriae and flagella
  • preparation of capsular extract and its characterization
  • Application of standard serological methods for disease diagnosis
 
16
 Advances in Mycology
 
Course No.
VMC- 702
Title
Advances in Mycology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
 
Advanced studies on taxonomic genetics, physiology and antigenic characterization of pathogenic fungi.
  • Fungal classification, taxonomy and systematics
  • Cell biology and physiology
  • Functional genetics
16
 
UNIT II
 
 
Advanced studies on molecular approaches for identification of fungi and immunology and serology of mycoses.
  • Theory of molecular methods in veterinary mycology
  • Molecular methods in the diagnosis of fungal infection
  • Molecular methods in taxonomy and for the identification of fungal pathogens.
  • Strain typing techniques, sampling techniques and epidemiology
  • Immunology and serology of mycoses
16
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Biochemical, physiological and pathogenesis studies of various fungal diseases.
  • Diagnosis of fungal infections
  • Specimen collection, direct examination, culture
  • Serological diagnosis
  • Molecular diagnosis
  • Histological diagnosis
  • Preservation and storage of fungi
16
Bacterial Genetics
 
Course No.
VMC- 703
Title
Bacterial Genetics
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
Lecture Nos.
Topic
No, of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • Procaryotic and Eucaryotic genome.
  • Replication of eucaryotic and procaryotic DNA.
  • Structure, classification and replication of plasmids, conjugative and non-conjugative plasmids, fertility plasmid, plasmid for antimicrobial resistance, colicins.
  • Mutation and mutagenesis: types of mutants, detection of mutants, molecular basis of mutations.
12
 
UNIT II
 
 
  • Biochemical genetic and gene mapping by recombination, fine gene structure analysis.
  • Gene transfer in bacteria
  • Transduction, transformation and conjugation and gene mapping by these processes.
 
10
 
UNIT III
 
 
  • Transposing elements, insertion sequences, transposons and bacteriophage, cosmids.
  • Gene cloning and gene sequencing.
  • Regulation of gene expression.
10
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Mutagenesis of microorganisms by different methods.
  • Production, isolation and characterization of mutants.
  • Determination of mutation rate.
  • Isolation, characterization and curing of plasmids.
  • Transfer of plasmid by conjugation, electroporation.
  • Transfer of drug resistance by conjugation
  • Propagation and titration of phage
  • Tetrad and random spore analysis
16
 Microbial Toxins
 
Course No.
VMC- 704
Title
Microbial Toxins
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • The role of microbial toxins in the pathogenesis of diseases;
  • Intracellular and extracellular toxins
  • Complex LPS toxin of cells walls
  • Biochemical and biological characteristics of toxins produced by various bacteria.
  • Toxin producing Gram positive and negative bacteria.
  • Properties and clinical conditions produced by different bacterial toxins with their mechanism of action
  • Immunology of toxins
  • Assay systems for toxins
24
 
UNIT II
 
 
  • Production, characterization, and study of pathogenicity of various fungal toxins: Mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses: Properties and clinical conditions produced by different mycotoxins with their mechanism of action.
08
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Isolation of toxigenic strains of bacteria from suspected material,
  • production of toxins in suitable media,
  • purification and characterization of toxins;
  • biological characterization in animal and in tissue culture;
  • Immunobiological studies of toxins
  • Toxin-antitoxin neutralization test
  • Characterization or mycotoxins
16
 Molecular Determinants of Bacterial Pathogenesis
 
Course No.
VMC- 705
Title
Molecular Determinants of Bacterial Pathogenesis
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
II
 THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
UNIT I
 
1
Molecular structure, production and mode of action of …
  • Bacterial Adhesins
  • Invasins
  • Impedins
  • Agressins
  • Modulins
  • Capsule
  • Flagella
  • Enzymes
  • Components of cell wall and
  • Siderophores
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
The production, structure and molecular mechanism of actions in causation of disease of..
  • Exotoxins
  • Endotoxins
  • Siderophores
  • Cytotoxins and
  • Plasmids
16
 
PRACTICAL
 
3
  • To study the production and effects of exotoxins and endotoxins, LPS and various enzymes produced by the bacteria on various cell culture and live animals.
16
 Advances in Virology
 
Course No.
VMC- 706
Title
Advances in Virology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • Recent theories on origin and evolution of viruses.
  • Recent concepts in classification and nomenclature of viruses
  • Biology of RNA and DNA virus replication: Replication strategies in major families of RNA and DNA viruses.
  • Transcription and translation modes in major families of viruses
  • Biosynthesis of viral macromolecules
  • Strategies of release in different groups of viruses
  • Genomic organization and replication of a prototype member of each family
14
 
UNIT II
 
 
Current concepts in animal virus research with respect to
  • Viral Structure And Architecture
  • Viral Virulence
  • Viral Pathogenesis
  • Persistence and
  • Oncogenesis
08
 
 
 
 
Latest trends in the development of antivirals
  • Drugs interfering with attachment, penetration and uncoating
  • Drugs inhibiting virion associated enzymes and transcription of genome
  • Inhibitors of viral mRNA and translational processes
  • Inhibitors of viral RNA genome synthesis
  • Inhibitors of viral DNA replication
  • Drugs affecting late viral mRNA and late viral proteins
  • Interferon
08
 
UNIT IV
 
 
  • Cloning and expression in viral vectors
02
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
Separation and characterization of viral proteins, and nucleic acid by
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, column chromatography,
blotting techniques. Detection of viral components and viral antibodies by techniques viz. FAT, ELISA, PCR, Nucleic acid hybridization/ probes. Problem oriented practical assignments aimed at development of bioreagents and relevant diagnostic tests. Screening and evaluation of antiviral agents for efficacy and toxicity
16
Molecular & Genetic Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis
 
Course No.
VMC- 707
Title
Molecular & Genetic Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
II
  
Lecture Nos.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
Mechanisms of viral infection and spread through the body; detailed study of virus host interactions.
6
 
UNIT II
 
2
Host immune responses to viral infections; viral strategies to evade host immune responses.
6
 
UNIT III
 
3
Pathogenesis of viral diseases of various systems; animal models for studying viral pathogenesis; molecular and genetic determinants of viral virulence; mechanisms of viral virulence.
10
 
UNIT IV
 
4
Molecular and genetic determinants of viral persistence, viral oncogenesis, viral immunosuppression, and immunopathology. Animal models for studying viral pathogenesis.
10
 
PRACTICAL
 
5
Pathotyping of animal viruses using Newcastle disease virus as model; Determination of immunosuppressive potential of animal viruses using infectious bursal disease virus/ Marek’s disease virus/ chicken anemia virus; characterization of molecular determinants of viral virulence using variants, recombinants and reassortants; isolation and molecular characterization of viruses with varying virulence.
16
 Structure Function Relationship of DNA & RNA Viruses
 
Course No.
VMC- 708
Title
Structure Function Relationship of DNA & RNA Viruses
Credits
3+0 = 3
Semester
II
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • Methods of studying virus structure and architecture;
  • methods of amplification of viral nucleic acids;
  • molecular characterization of viral protein and nucleic acid,
  • Nucleotide sequencing and its analysis by software programmes.
 
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Detailed study of virus replication in various groups of animal viruses
  • DNA Virus families: Papovaviridae, Parovoviridae, Iridoviridae, Asfaviridae, Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Adenoviridae
  • RNA Virus families: Picornaviridae, Togaviridae, Caliciviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Coronaviridae, Birnaviridae, Reoviridae, Retroviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae
16
 
UNIT III
 
3
  • Understanding the relationship between structure and function of animal DNA and RNA viruses
  • Development of modern vaccines and antivirals using the relationship between structure and function of animal DNA and RNA viruses
  • Drugs interfering with attachment, penetration and uncoating, Drugs inhibiting virion associated enzymes and transcription of genome, Inhibitors of viral mRNA and translational processes, Inhibitors of viral RNA genome synthesis, Inhibitors of viral DNA replication, Drugs affecting late viral mRNA and late viral proteins
 
16
 
 
Oncogenic Viruses
 
Course No.
VMC  709
Title
Oncogenic Viruses
Credits
2 + 0 = 2
Semester
III
 THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • General features of cell transformation
  • Characterization of transformed cells
  • Oncogenes and theory of oncogenesis
  • oncogenic virus- cell interaction
  • Oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses
  • expression of viral and cellular oncogenes
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Mechanisms of viral oncogenesis
  • transformation mechanism
  • Properties of transformed cells
  • Virus interactions with the translation and replication mechanism
  • Virus interactions with cell protein maturation pathway
  • Effects of virus on cell structure and transformation
  • Diagnosis of viral oncogenesis
16
 Slow Viral Infections & Prions
 
Course No.
VMC- 710
Title
Slow Viral Infections & Prions
Credits
2 + 0 = 2
Semester
III
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • Nature and classification of slow viral infections, Mechanism of infection
           Epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, immunity, diagnosis
           and control of ….
  • Visna,
  • Maedi,
  • Equine infectious anaemia
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis
 
16
 
UNIT II
 
 
  • Properties and replication of prions.
           Epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunity, diagnosis and control
           of various diseases caused by prions;
  • Transmissible mink encephalopathy
  • Scrapie
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Chronic wasting disease of deer
  • Recent trends in prion research.
Unclassified viruses: Nature, techniques for the isolation pathogenesis, control of these agents.
 
16
 Molecular Immunology
 
Course No.
VMC- 711
Title
Molecular Immunology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lecture s
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • Structure, functions and biosynthesis of immunoglobulins, allotypes, isotypes and idiotypes.
  • Recombinant antibodies
  • T and B-cell receptors
  • Origin of antibody diversity, immunoglobulin gene organization and assembly
  • T-cell receptor gene organization and assembly
  • Pathogen associated molecular patterns and pattern recognition receptors in immunity.
  • Advances in characterization of antigens and superantigens,
  • epitope mapping.
  • Novel functions of immunoglobulins and their fragments produced by rDNA technology.
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Cytokines and cytokine receptors: structure and function. Complement components genes and polymorphism.
  • MHC genes.
  • Evolutionary aspects of recombination activating genes-mediated immunity in vertebrates.
08
 
UNIT III
 
3
  • Immunoinformatics as applied to MHC molecules-peptide complexes and other molecules.
  • Immunoinformatics, databases and web resources
  • Immunoproteomics
  • Immunomics.
08
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Purification of immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses,
  • IgG fragments production by pepsin and papain digestion,
  • cytokine quantitation and detection by ELISPOT assay,
  • IgV gene amplification and sequencing,
  • Use of immunoinformatic tools for study of Ig genes.
  • Techniques of immunoelectrophoresis, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 
16
 Advances in Cellular Immunology
 
Course No.
VMC- 712
Title
Advances in Cellular Immunology
Credits
2+1 = 3
Semester
I
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • Hematopioetic stem cells and differentiation pathways of various leukocytes.
  • B and T lymphocyte repertoires.
  • Lymphocyte- endothelial cell interactions during lymphocyte emigration and recirculation, molecular mechanism of lymphocyte traffic and homing
  • Positive and negative selection
  • Antigen presenting cells,
  • T cell subsets, regulatory T cells,
  • Memory B and T cells.
  • NK cell biology.
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Cellular interactions during immune response development: microenvironments, antigen processing and presentation, activation of B and T cells, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokines in intercellular communication.
  • Signal transduction pathways in B and T cell activation. 
08
 
UNIT III
 
3
  • Immunoregulation of B and T cell response.
  • Mucosal immune system.
  • Oral tolerance and its breakdown.
  • Advances in transplantation immunology.
  • SCID, gene-knockout and transgenic animals in immunobiology research.
08
 
PRACTICAL
 
4
  • Fluorescence activated and magnetic cell sorting of lymphocyte subsets
  • Lymphocyte proliferation assays using non-radioisotope methods
  • adoptive transfer of lymphocyte subsets
  • cytotoxic T cell assays
  • ELISPOT assays for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets secreting cytokines
  • Morphological and functional assays of blood monocytes
  • T-cell western immunoblot
16
Cytokines & Immunomodulators
 
Course No.
VMC- 713
Title
Cytokines & Immunomodulators
Credits
2 + 0 = 2
Semester
II
  
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • Cytokines and immunomodulators: definitions and classification, properties
  • Cytokines structure and functions.
  • Cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 subsets
  • Cytokine receptors: structural types and presence on different cells.
  • Roles in activation, division and differentiation of immune cells, and immunoregulation
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Cytokine networks.
  • cytokines in reproductive processes and neuroendocrino-immunological interactions.
  • Therapeutic uses of cytokines
  • Immunomodulators in control of diseases.
  • Cytokines as adjuvants and imunomodulators.
  • Colony stimulating factors and other cytokines in stem cell research.
16
 Advances in Vaccinology
 
Course No.
VMC- 714
Title
Advances in Vaccinology
Credits
2+0 = 2
Semester
III
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • Advances in vaccine development research.
  • Antigen identification and characterization employing newer molecular technologies such as microarrays,
  • in vivo expression technology,
  • signature-tagged mutagenesis and
  • phage display technology, etc.
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Immunoinformatics as applied to epitope mapping,
  • T cell epitopes,
  • identification of pathogenic epitopes, etc.
  • Novel vaccines: nucleic acids, marker vaccines, mucosal vaccines, bacterial ghosts as vaccines, virus-like particles.
  • Futuristic vaccines: anti-allergic, anti-autoimmune diseases, deaddiction
  • vaccines, transplant survival/ prolonging vaccines etc.
16
 Advances in Immunodiagnostics
 
Course No.
VMC- 715
Title
Advances in Immunodiagnostics
Credits
1+1= 2
Semester
III
  
Lecture Nos.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • Newer methods of immunodiagnosis
  • Simple, rapid, penside immunodiagnostic tests such as immunochromatofocussing, immunofiltration tests, etc.
  • Development of highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays such as immuno-PCR, use of luminescent substrates, etc.
  • Discriminant immunoassays for differentiating cross-reactive antigens.
  • Antibodies in biosensors. 
16
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Development of immunofiltration tests using monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of infectious diseases of animals.
  • Blocking ELISA to differentiate cross-reactive antigens.
16
 Modern Immunotechnology
 
Course No.
VMC- 716
Title
Modern Immunotechnology
Credits
1+1= 2
Semester
III
 
THEORY
 
S.N.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
 
  • Historical developments in modern immunotechnology.
  • Hybridoma technology:
  • Advances in monoclonal antibody production.
  • Chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies. 
08
 
UNIT II
 
 
  • Recombinant DNA technology for expression of antibody fragments: Fab, scFv, bispecific antibody, nanobody and various other antibody formats.
  • Modern uses of antibody fragments: biosensors, catalysis, therapeutics, in vivo imaging, microarrays, proteomics, etc. 
08
 
PRACTICAL
 
 
  • Production of murine monoclonal antibody against antigens of infectious agents by hydridoma technique.
  • Production of phage display library of scFv or camel nanobody.
  • Selection of antigen-specific phage displayed antibody fragment by panning or other techniques. 
16
 Current Topics in Infection & Immunity
 
Course No.
VMC 717
Title
Current Topics in Infection & Immunity
Credits
3 + 0 = 3
Semester
III
  
Lecture Nos.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
Introduction and historical developments.
Host-pathogen relationship.
16
 
UNIT II
 
2
Effector mechanisms of specific and non specific immunity to different groups of microbes.
16
 
UNIT III
 
3
Immunobiology of major viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of animals.
Types of vaccines in infectious diseases and current trends in vaccine development.
16
 Veterinary Microbial Biotechnology
 
Course No.
VMC- 718
Title
Veterinary Microbial Biotechnology
Credits
2 + 1 = 3
Semester
II
  
Lecture Nos.
Topic
No. of Lectures
 
THEORY
 
 
UNIT I
 
1
  • History of microbial biotechnology.
  • Microbes in nature.
  • Microbes as infectious agents of human and animals.
  • Host-microbe relationships.
  • Microbial metabolism and growth characteristics.
  • Microbial genetics.
06
 
UNIT II
 
2
  • Introduction to molecular biology of microorganisms:
  • DNA, RNA and proteins structure and functions.
  • DNA replication, RNA transcription,
  • Reverse transcription, protein translation, regulatory mechanisms. Bacterial extrachromosomal DNA elements
06
 
UNIT III
 
3
  • Genetic engineering: restriction enzymes, DNA ligases, DNA polymerases, RNases and DNases, other enzymes.
  • DNA sequencing.
  • Plasmids and phage-derived vectors, bacterial hosts for cloning and expression of transgenes.
  • Genomic libraries and sequencing.
  • Blotting of DNA, RNA and proteins.
  • Polymerase chain reaction.
  • Microarrays.
  • Metagenomics
10
 
UNIT IV
 
4
  • Expression of antigens and antibody fragments useful as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
  • PCR and blotting techniques in infectious disease diagnosis.
  • Nucleic acid vaccines.
  • Vectored viral and bacterial vaccines.
  • Construction of defined mutants and marker vaccines using genetic manipulation techniques.
  • Display technologies for production of immunobiologicals.
  • Manipulation of microbial processes for production of industrially useful substances. 
10
 
 
PRACTICAL
 
5
  • Extraction of nucleic acids from viruses and bacteria.
  • Restriction endonuclease digestion of DNA and resolution in agarose gel electrophoresis.
  • PCR amplification of DNA.
  • RT-PCR of RNA.
  • Insertion of DNA fragments into plasmid/phagemid/phage vectors. Construction of competent E. coli host cells.
  • Transformation and transfection of competent E. coli cells. Screening of transformants and isolation of clones.
  • DNA sequencing of clones/PCR amplicons.
  • Expression of genes of bacterial/viral antigens.
  • Use of PCR for infectious disease diagnosis.
16
 Special Problem
 
Course No.
VMC- 790
Title
Special Problem
Credits
0 + 2 = 2
Semester
IV
 
S.N.
Topic
1
Short research problem(s) involving contemporary issues and research
techniques
 

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