UG Syllabus

 
Undergraduate Syllabus and Lecture Schedules of  Veterinary Microbiology
 
 
Course Structure
 
Sr. No.
Course No.
Title
Credits
Semester
1
VMC 211
General Veterinary Microbiology
1+1=2
III
2
VMC 221
Veterinary Immunology & Serology
1+1=2
IV
3
VMC 311
Systematic Veterinary Bacteriology & Mycology
2+1=3
V
4
VMC 321
Systematic Veterinary Virology
2+1=3
VI
5
VLD 421*
Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnosis
0+1=1
VIII
(* VLD 421 course is to be taught by Departments of Veterinary Physiology & Biochemistry, Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary Microbiology and Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology)
 
Teaching Schedules
 
General Veterinary Microbiology
 
Course No.
VMC – 211
Credits
1+1=2
Semester
III
Year
Second
 THEORY
 
S. N.
Topic outline
1.
Introduction and History
  • Highlights of developmental history of Veterinary Microbiology
  • Scope of Veterinary Microbiology
2.
Classification and Nomenclature
  • Unicellular organisms- Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • Kingdom Prokaryote and its four division (Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology)
  • Basis of classification and nomenclature of microorganisms
3.
Morphology and Structure
  • Morphology: Shape, size, arrangement and morphological variations
  • Structure: Structure of bacterial cell, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome, mesosomes, chromatin material
4.
Structure contd:
  • Capsule, flagella, fimbriae, endospore, plasmids, inclusions (volutin / metachromatic granules etc)
5.
Growth and Nutrition of Bacteria
  • Growth requirements: Temperature, pH, gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide etc), moisture etc.
  • Nutrition: Nutritional types (Autotrophs, heterotrophs, phototrophs, lithotrophs etc), Nutrient requirements (Macro and micronutrients)
6.
Growth and Reproduction
  • Measurement of bacterial growth, methods of estimating total and viable count
  • Bacterial growth curve
7.
Infection
  • Definitions: Infection, infectious disease, contagious disease, non-contagious disease etc.
  • Types of infection– primary, secondary, cross, nosocomial, iatrogenic infection, localized infection, generalized infection, Bacteremia, septicemia, toxaemia etc.
  • Sources of infection-animal, human, insects, inanimate
  • Transmission of infection– Modes of transmission, direct & indirect contact etc.
8.
Pathogenicity and Virulence
  • Factors determining the ability of organism to produce disease, pathogenicity, virulence, invasiveness, toxigenicity: endotoxin and exotoxin
Resistance and susceptibility of host
  • Host factors- breed, species,  individual factors- age, physiological & nutritional status, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids etc.
9.
Bacterial genetics
  • Phenotypic and Genotypic variations
  • Chromosomal DNA, plasmids, F factor, Col factor, R Factor
  • Methods of transmission of genetic material in microorganisms: Transformation, Transduction, Conjugation etc
  • Antibiotic resistance: Genetic mechanisms, mutational, plasmid-mediated
10.
Mycology:
  • Introduction, Scope of Mycology, Morphology of fungi, yeasts and molds
11.
Growth and nutrition of fungi
  • Reproduction in fungi: Asexual and Sexual, Definitions of different types of sexual and asexual spores.
  • Classification of fungi
12.
Virology:
  • General properties of virus, comparison of viruses and other microorganisms, definitions of different terms
  • Morphology & Structure of viruses – shape, size, symmetry, capsid, envelope, pepleomers etc.
  • Chemical composition of viruses – nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates
  • Resistance of virus to physical and chemical agents. 
13.
  • Purification of Viruses: Liberation of virus from infected cells, purification by centrifugation, ultracentrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, other methods
  • Cultivation of viruses: Animal inoculation, Chick embryo inoculation, cell culture
14.
Replication of  viruses
  • Single step growth curve, essential steps involved in multiplication,
  • Replication of DNA viruses
  • Replication of RNA viruses
15.
Cell-virus interaction
  • Cytopathic effect, mechanisms of damage caused by viruses, cytocidal, non-cytocidal cell virus interactions, viral interference, interferon, pathogenesis of viral infection
16.
Viral genetics
  • Mutation, recombination, genetic reassortment and reactivation
  • Non genetic interaction- Transcapitation, complmentation, phenotypic mixing and polyploidy
PRACTICAL
 
S.N.
Practical / Experiment
1.
Equipments / Set-up of Microbiology laboratory
General instructions for safety in Microbiology laboratory
2.
Sterilization-Methods of sterilization
Physical: Heat (dry / moist), Filtration: Different types of filters (Seitz / Membrane etc.); Radiation: Ultraviolet
Preparation of materials for sterilization, Demonstration of working of Hot air oven, autoclave, instrument sterilizer, inspissator, Seitz and membrane filters etc.
3.
Disinfection, antisepsis and asepsis
Demonstration of method of estimation of phenol coefficient of chemical disinfectants
4.
Bacterial Staining techniques
Simple staining: Methylene blue and Leishman’s stains
5.
Differential staining – Gram’s staining
6.
Differential staining – Acid-fast staining / Z. N. staining
7.
Special staining – Metachromatic granules (Albert’s stain), capsule (Hiss or negative staining) and spore staining (Schaffer and Fulton’s staining)
8.
Bacterial motility
Study of bacterial motility by hanging drop preparation
9.
Preparation of culture media
Liquid media-Nutrient broth; Solid media-Basal- Nutrient Agar
Enriched media- Blood Agar; Differential media- Mac Conkey’s agar,
Indicator media- EMB Agar
10.
Aerobic and anaerobic cultivation of bacteria
Culture Methods: Slant cultures, stab cultures, streak cultures, liquid cultures
Anaerobic cultivation: Demonstration of anaerobic cultivation using McIntosh and Filde’s anaerobic jar, other methods of anaerobic cultivation viz. use of cooked meat medium etc.
11.
Isolation of bacteria in pure cultures
Different methods of obtaining pure cultures of bacteria
Isolation by streak plate method
12.
Cultural characteristics
Study of cultural characteristics of bacteria on different media (solid and liquid)
13.
Morphological studies:
Preparation of smear / film from bacterial culture, fixation, staining by Gram’s stain, morphological studies including shape, size, arrangement, staining reaction etc.
Demonstration of slides of different organisms eg. Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacillus anthracis, Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., other Gram negative bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis etc.
14.
Biochemical characteristics: Demonstration of
Carbohydrate metabolism-Sugar fermentation tests, Methyl Red, Voges- Proskauer test; Protein breakdown- Indole, Nitrate, H2S production; Enzyme based tests- Catalase, oxidase, urease; Miscellaneous tests- Citrate test
15
Antibiotic sensitivity test– Disc diffusion technique
16.
Slide culture technique and lactophenol cotton blue staining for fungus examination
 
TEXT BOOKS:
  1. Text Book of Microbiology by R. Ananthnarayan and C.K.J. Paniker
  2. Microbiology by Michael J. Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan and Noel R. Kreig
  3. Essentials of Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology by G.R. Carter and Darla J. Wise
  4. Veterinary Virology by F.A. Murphy, E.P.J. Gibbs, M.C. Horzinek and M.J. Studdert
 Veterinary Immunology & Serology
 
Course No.
VMC- 221
Credits
1+1=2
Semester
IV
Year
Second
 THEORY
 
S. N.
Topic outline
1.
Historical development of Immunology.
Introduction and scope of Veterinary Immunology
2
Immune system: Organs -central and peripheral lymphoid organs, Thymus, Bursa etc. Cells involved in immunity: Lymphocytes – classes, development of different types
3
Cells involved in immunity contd. T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils etc.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) – MHC classes, structure, role
4
Immunity: Definition, types of immunity- innate immunity, mechanisms of innate immunity (non-specific defense)
5
Immunity contd.: Acquired immunity – active and passive immunity
6
Immune response: Humoral and cellular immune response; Primary and secondary immune response
7
Antigen: Definition, properties and types of antigen, specificity of antigens, blood group antigens, Antigenic determinant / epitope, Factors influencing immunogenicity
8
Antibodies: Immunoglobulin structure, site and mechanism of antibody formation; theories of antibody production
9
Antibodies: Structure, properties and functions of different classes of immunoglobulins
Hybridoma technique and monoclonal antibodies
10
Complement system: Complement components, Activation of complement by classical, alternate and mannose binding pathways.
11
Antigen-antibody reactions: General features of antigen-antibody reactions, antibody affinity, avidity, specificity; forces binding antigen and antibody
12
Principle and applications of precipitation and agglutination reactions; phagocytosis, opsonic index
13
Principle and applications of complement fixation, neutralization, cytolysis, toxin-antitoxin neutralization, immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassays
14
Hypersensitivity: Definition, types of hypersensitivity- immediate and delayed hypersensitivity, mechanisms of different types of hypersensitivity reactions
15
Autoimmunity: Definition, mechaimsms, classification of autoimmune disorders with examples. Immunological tolerance.
16
Biologicals: Vaccines – inactivated, live and modern vaccines their advantages and disadvantages, adjuvants, quality control of vaccines
PRACTICAL
 
S.N.
Practical / Experiment
1.
Preparation of antigen
Heat killed / formalinized whole cell bacterin
Preparation of sheep RBC suspension for raising haemolysin
2
Raising of antisera
Raising antiserum against particulate antigen e.g. haemolysin against sheep RBCs
Raising antiserum against soluble antigen e.g. bovine serum albumin
3
Separation and concentration of immunoglobulins by ammonium sulfate precipitation method
4
Agglutination reactions:
Plate / slide agglutination test e.g. RBPT for detection of Brucella antibodies
Tube test e.g. standard tube agglutination test for detection of Brucella antibodies
5
Agglutination reactions contd.:
Haemagglutination and haemagglutination-inhibition tests
6
Agglutination reactions contd.:
Indirect / passive haemagglutination test
Latex co-agglutination test
7
Precipitation reactions:
Agar gel precipitation test
8
Precipitation reactions contd.:
Radial immunodiffusion (RID)
Counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE)
Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE)
9
Complement fixation test:
Titration of complement and haemolysin
10
Complement fixation test:
Complement fixation test proper
11
Immunoperoxidase test
12
Immunofluorescence test
13
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Direct ELISA
14
ELISA: indirect, sandwich, dot-ELISA
15
Detection of cell mediated immunity:
Demonstration of tuberculin testing
16
Visit to veterinary biologicals
 
TEXT BOOKS:
  1. Veterinary Immunology: An Introduction by Ian R. Tizard
  2. Text book of Microbiology by R. Anantnarayan and C.K.J. Paniker
 
Systematic Veterinary Bacteriology & Mycology
 
Course No.
VMC-311
Credits
2+1=3
Semester
V
Year
Third
 THEORY
 
S. N.
Topic outline
 
Study of following pathogenic bacteria and fungi in relation to their, morphology, staining characters, isolation, growth requirements and cultural characters, biochemical properties, antigenic characters and toxins, pathogenicity, diagnosis and immunity
1.
Genus: Staphylococcus, Extracellular metabolites of Staphylococci     
2
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Short description of Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus epidermidis
3
Genus: Streptococcus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Streptococcus equi
4
Genus: Streptococcus contd.
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae
  • Streptococcus uberis
5
Genus: Bacillus
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Short description of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus
6
Genus: Clostridum
  • Types of Clostridia – Histotoxic, Neurotoxic, Enteropathogenic etc.
  • Clostridium chauvoei
  • Clostridium perfringens
7
  • Clostridium tetani
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Short description of other Clostridia.
8
Genus: Mycobacterium
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium bovis
9
Genus: Mycobacterium contd.
  • Mycobacterium avium
  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis
10
Family: Enterobacteriaceae- General features and classification
Genus: Escherichia
  • Escherichia coli
11
Genus: Salmonella
  • Nomenclature of Salmonella, Salmonella enterica and its subspecies
  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • Salmonella Choleraesuis
  • Salmonella Pullorum
  • Salmonella Gallinarum
12
Genus: Yersinia
  • Yersinia pestis
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
  • Yersinia enterocolitica
13
Genus: Klebsiella
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
Genus: Proteus
  • Proteus vulgaris
  • Proteus mirabilis
14
Genus: Campylobacter
  • Campylobacter fetus
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Campylobacter coli
15
Genus: Brucella
  • Brucella abortus
  • Brucella meligensis
  • Short description of B. canis and B. suis
16
Genus: Pasteurella
  • Pasteurella multocida
Genus: Manheimia
  • Manheimia haemolytica
17
Genus: Pseudomonas
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Genus: Burkholderia
  • Burkholderia mallei
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei
18
Genus: Moraxella
  • Moraxella bovis
Genus: Taylorella
  • Taylorella equigenitalis
Genus: Haemophilus
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Haemophilus paragallinarum
19
Genus: Actinobacillus
  • Actinobacillus lignieresii
Genus: Actinomyces
  • Actinomyces bovis
 
20
Genus: Listeria
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Listeria ivanovii
21
Genus: Arcanobacterium
  • Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Genus: Corynebacterium
  • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Corynebacterium bovis
22
Genus: Nocardia
  • Nocardia ratislav
Genus: Dermatophilus
  • Derlmatophilus congolensis
23
Spirochaetes
Genus: Leptospira
  • Leptospira interrogans serovars: icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, ratis, hardjo, ratislava, grippotyphosa, Leptospira borgpetersenii serovars: tarassovi, hardjo
Genus: Borrelia
  • Borrelia anserine
  • Borrelia burgdorferi
24
Genus: Mycoplasma
  • General characters of Mycoplasma
  • Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides (SC)
  • Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides (LC)
  • Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae (F38)
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  • Short description of other species of Mycoplasma
25
Rickettsia
  • General characters of Rickettsia
  • Genus: Rickettsia and its important species
  • Genus: Ehrilichia and its important species
  • Coxiella burnetti
26
Chlamydia
  • General characters of chlamydia
  • Genus: Chlamydia Chlamydia suis
  • Genus: Chlamydophila, Chlamydophila psittacii, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum
27
Dermatophytes
  • Genus: Microsporum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and other species affecting domestic animals
  • Genus: Trichophyton, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum
28
Genus: Aspergillus
  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Aspergillus flavus
29
  • Candida albicans
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Malassezia pachydermatis
30
  • Blastomyces dermatitidis
  • Coccidioides immitis
  • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Histoplasma farciminosum
  • Sporothrix schenckii
31
  • Zygomycoses: Mucormycosis, Entomophthomycosis
  • Rhinosporidium seeberi
32
  • Fungi associated with mastitis and abortions in animals
  • Mycotoxicoses
PRACTICAL
 
S.N.
Practical / Experiment
 
Laboratory identification of agents of…..
1.
Mastitis:
  • Collection of milk sample and processing for isolation of pathogen
  • Identification of pathogen
  • Staphylococcus spp. : Gram’s staining, colony characters, coagulase test
2
Mastitis contd.:
  • Streptococcus spp.: Gram’s staining, colony characters, haemolytic properties, CAMP test
  • Other pathogens: Gram’s staining, study of morphology and cultural characters, biochemical tests as required.
3
Haemorrhagic septicaemia:
  • Collection of specimen viz. blood
  • Preparation of blood smear, staining with Leishman’s stain, detection of bipolar rods
  • Mouse inoculation test
4
Enteric infections:
  • Collection specimens in regular and enrichment media
  • Processing for isolation of agent and identification by..
  • E. coli: Gram’s stain, Growth on MacConkey’s agar & EMB agar, IMViC tests
5
Enteric infections contd:
  • Identification of Salmonella, Klebsiella and other enteric pathogens on the basis of morphology and staining, cultural characters and IMViC tests
6
Brucellosis:
  • Collection of specimens viz. Sera samples & other clinical material
  • Serological tests: Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and Tube agglutination test / ELISA
  • Processing of clinical specimen for isolation of causative agent
7
Tuberculosis:
  • Collection of specimen viz. tissues / organs
  • Preparation of smear, staining by Z. N. staining method, detection of acid-fast bacilli
  • Tuberculin test
8
Johne’s disease:
  • Collection of specimen viz. rectal pinch
  • Preparation of smear, staining by Z. N. staining method, detection of acid-fast bacilli
  • Johnin test
9
Clostridial infections: Black quarter
  • Methylene blue staining of exudate / tissue smear and microscopic observation for detection of Clostridium chauvoei
  • Processing of material for isolation employing anaerobic culture methods
  • Guinea pig inoculation
10
Clostridial infections: Enterotoxaemia
  • Microscopic examination of clinical specimen viz. intestinal contents for detection of Gram positive bacilli
  • Detection of toxin by mouse inoculation
Toxin-antitoxin neutralization test.
11
Wooden tongue / lumpy jaw:
  • Collection of specimen
  • Preparation of smear, staining and microscopic examination
12
Anthrax:
  • Collection of specimen, preparation of blood smear, staining by polychrome methylene blue stain and detection of Mac Fadyean reaction
  • Demonstration of cultural characteristics
13
Glanders:
Mallein testing
14
Aspergillosis:
  • Collection specimen, direct examination of lactophenol cotton blue stained preparations
  • Processing of specimen for isolation employing Sabouraud’s dextrose agar, identification on the basis of morphology and cultural characters
15
Dermatophytosis:
  • Collection specimen viz. scrapings, direct examination of lactophenol cotton blue stained preparations
  • Processing of specimen for isolation employing Sabouraud’s dextrose agar, identification on the basis of morphology and cultural characters
16
Yeasts:
  • Candida albicans: Detection of Chlamydospores, germ tube technique
  • Cryptococcus: Staining by India ink method and direct microscopic examination
 TEXT BOOKS:
  1. Essentials of Veterinary Bacteriology & Mycology by G.R. Carter and D.J. Wise
  2. Text Book of Veterinary Microbiology by Prof. S.N. Sharma & S.C. Adlakha
  3. Veterinary Bacteriology and Virology byI.A. Merchant & R. A. Packer
 
Systematic Veterinary Virology
 
Course No.
VMC – 321
Credits
2+1=3
Semester
VI
Year
Third
 THEORY
 
S. N.
Topic outline
1
Brief History of virology, classification and important characteristics of various families of DNA.
 
Study of following viruses causing diseases in livestock and poultry with reference to classification, morphology, physico-chemical properties, cultivation, antigenic characters, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis and immunity
 
DNA VIRUSES
2
Poxviridae : Cowpox, buffalo pox, fowl pox
3
Poxviridae contd.: Sheep pox, goat pox, lumpy skin disease, orf
4
Asfaviridae :  African swine fever
5
Herpesviridae: Pseudorabies, Malignant catarrhal fever, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine abortions
6
Herpesviridae contd.: Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis
7
Adenoviridae: Infectious canine hepatitis
8
Adenoviridae contd.: Egg drop syndrome, Inclusion body hepatitis – Hydropericardium syndrome
9
Papillomaviridae: Papillomatosis
10
Parvoviridae: Canine parvovirus
11
Circoviridae: Chicken infectious anemia
 
RNA VIRUSES
12
Orthomyxoviridae:  swine influenza, equine influenza
13
Orthomyxoviridae contd.: Avian Influenza
14
Paramyxoviridae: Rinderpest, PPR
15
Paramyxoviridae contd.: Canine distemper
16
Paramyxoviridae contd.: Ranikhet disease
17
Flaviviridae:  classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea
18
Picornaviridae: Duck viral hepatitis
19
Picornaviridae contd.: Foot and Mouth disease
20
Rhabdoviridae:  ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis
21
Rhabdoviridae contd.: Rabies
22
Coronaviridae: Avian infectious  Bronchitis, Transmissible gastroenteritis
23
Togaviridae: Equine encephalitis (WEE, EEE and VEE)
24
Arteriviridae: Equine viral arteritis
Caliciviridae: Vescicular exanthema
25
Retroviridae: Avian leucosis
26
Lentiviruses: Equine infectious anemia
27
Lentiviruses contd.: Maedi, visna, sheep pulmonary adenomatosis
28
Reoviridae: African horse sickness
29
Reoviridae contd.: Blue tongue, Calf rotavirus
30
Birnaviridae: Infectious bursal disease
31
Prions: BSE, Scrapie
32
Emerging animal and poultry viruses – equine morbillivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Nipah, Hanta Chandipura
 PRACTICAL
 
S. N.
Practical
1.
Preparation of glassware and equipments for virus work
2.
Preparation of media, solutions, buffers and their sterilization
3.
Demonstration of primary cell culture Preparation and subculturing the cell line
4.
Chick embryo inoculation and harvesting of virus
Allantoic and Chorio-allantoic membrane routes
5.
Chick embryo inoculation and harvesting of virus
Amniotic and yolk sac routes
6.
Animal inoculation for cultivation of viruses
7.
Infection of cell cultures with virus and study of cytopathic effects – Demonstration
8.
Study of viral inclusions: Detection of Negri bodies in brain brain impression smears stained by Seller’s stain  
9.
Collection, preservation and transport of clinical specimen for virological investigations
10.
Processing of material for virus isolation
 
Diagnostic procedures for following viral diseases including collection of specimens, preservation, processing and application of specific tests
11.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): ELISA / AGID
12.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD): CFT / ELISA
13.
Ranikhet disease (RD): Chicken embryo inoculation, HA & HI
14.
Bluetongue: AGID / ELISA
15.
Avian infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease: Chicken embryo inoculation / AGID
16.
Canine Parovirus: Haemagglutination test
Infectious bovine rhinotrachitis (IBR): dot ELISA
 TEXT BOOKS:
  1. Veterinary Virology by F.A. Murphy, E.P.J. Gibbs, M.C. Horzinek and M.J. Studdert
  2. Veterinary Virology by S. N. Sharma and S.C. Adlakha
  3. Veterinary Virology by S. B. Mohanty and S.K. Datta
 Veterinary Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnosis-II
 
Course No.
VLD – 421
Credits
0+1=1
Semester
VIII
Year
Fourth
  
S. N.
Practical / Experiment
1 to 16
  • Orientation to Clinical Microbiology Laboratory
Examination of clinical cases in TVCSC and …..
  • Collection and processing of specimens from clinical cases suspected for bacterial, viral, fungal infections.
  • Isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens
  • Identification of bacteria on the basis morphology, staining, cultural and biochemical characteristics
  • Performing drug sensitivity tests and deciding strategy of therapy
  • Examination of specimen for direct microscopic detection of fungal agents
  • Processing of specimens for isolation of fungal agents
  • Identification of fungal isolates on the basis of morphology and cultural characteristics
  • Anti-fungal sensitivity tests
  • Diagnosis of specific infectious diseases by employing serological tests like agar gel immuno diffusion (AGID), ELISA, dot-ELISA, tube agglutination test, slide agglutination test etc.
 

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