PG Syllabus

PG syllabus:
 
VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
Course Contents
 
VPT 601  GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY                2+0
Objective
To study the scope of pharmacology and to understand the basic
mechanisms of drug actions and its effects.
 Theory
UNIT I History and scope of pharmacology, Principles of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Drug bioavailability and routes of administration.
UNIT II Important pharmacokinetic parameters and their clinical significance.
UNIT III Pharmacodynamics: mechanism of action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect; signal transduction mechanism and drug receptors for physiological regulatory molecules.
UNIT IV Quantitation of drug-receptor interactions and elicited effects. Competitive and non-competitive antagonism. Factors affecting drug response. Adverse drug reactions.
 
VPT 602  AUTONOMIC AND AUTACOID PHARMACOLOGY    2+1
 Objective
  To study the pharmacodynamics of autonomic drugs.
Theory
UNIT I: Anatomical and physiological considerations of autonomic nervous system (ANS).
UNIT II: Neurohumoral transmission in ANS.
UNIT III:  Pharmacology of cholinergic agonists and antagonists.
UNIT IV: Pharmacology of adrenergic agonists and antagonists.
UNIT V: Ganglionic stimulants and blockers.
UNIT VI: Autacoids: Histamine, serotonin, kinins, eicosanoids and platelet activating factor.
 
Practical
Pharmacological experiments on intact and isolated preparations for studying the effects of various prototype drugs on vascular, intestinal, respiratory, urinary and reproductive smooth muscles, autonomic ganglia, skeletal muscles; blood pressure, ECG, heart etc.
 
VPT 603  CNS PHARMACOLOGY                            2+1
 Objective
  To study the pharmacodynamics of drugs acting on CNS.
Theory
UNIT I: Anatomical and physiological considerations of central nervous system (CNS); neurohumoral transmission in CNS.
UNIT II: Historical development, theories, principles and stages of general anaesthesia.
UNIT III: Pharmacology of anaesthetics, sedatives, hypnotics, neuroleptics, antiepileptics.
UNIT IV: CNS stimulants, analeptics, opioid agonists and antagonists; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, central and peripheral muscle relaxants, local anaesthetics, therapeutic gases. euthanizing agents. Doping.
Practical
Study of pharmacodynamics of prototype drugs of each group in experimental animals.
 
 
 
VPT 604  DIGESTIVE AND RESPIRATORY PHARMACOLOGY     2+0 
Objective
To study the pharmacological aspects of drugs acting on digestive and
respiratory systems.
Theory
UNIT I: Pharmacology of drugs acting on gastrointestinal tract. Appetite stimulants,
emetics and anti-emetics.
 
UNIT II: Anti-ulcer drugs, modulators of gastric and intestinal motility and secretions.
UNIT III: Gastrointestinal protectants and adsorbents, laxatives and cathartics.
UNIT IV: Agents promoting digestive functions; bile acids and pancreatic enzymes, drugs affecting liver; rumen pharmacology.
UNIT V: Pharmacology of drugs acting on respiratory system: pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases.
UNIT VI: Bronchodilators, antitussives, mucolytics, expectorants, decongestants.
UNIT VII: Drugs used in treatment of asthma. 
 
 
VPT 605  CARDIOVASCULAR AND RENAL PHARMACOLOGY        2+0
 Objective
To study the pharmacological aspects of drugs acting on CVS and kidneys.
Theory
UNIT I: Pharmacology of cardiac glycosides.
UNIT II: Antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic drugs.
UNIT III: Drugs affecting vasomotor and cardiorespiratory reflex mechanisms and
haemopoietic system.
UNIT IV: Coagulants and anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents.
UNIT V: Pharmacology of drugs affecting renal functions and fluid-electrolyte balance.
UNIT VI: Fluid and electrolyte therapy, diuretics, antidiuretics, uricosuric drugs.  
 
 
VPT 606  ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHARMACOLOGY   2+0
 Objective
  To study the pharmacology of drugs affecting endocrine functions.
Theory
UNIT I: Pharmacology of drugs affecting endocrine functions of pituitary, thyroid, adrenals and pancreas.
UNIT II: Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.
UNIT III: Pharmacology of drugs affecting male reproductive organs, spermatogenesis.
UNIT IV: Pharmacology of drugs affecting female reproductive organs, ovulation,  oestrus, conception, gestation and lactation.
UNIT V: Oxytocic and tocolytic drugs. 
 
 
VPT 607  CHEMOTHERAPY                         2+1
Objective
To study the recent advances of chemotherapeutic agents with relevance to
pharmacological and therapeutic aspects.
Theory
UNIT I: General consideration and principles of chemotherapy, classification of
chemotherapeutic agents; development of microbial resistance to antimicrobials, combination therapy.
UNIT II: Systemic and gut acting sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, quinolones sulfones, nitrofurans.
UNIT III : Penicillins, cephalosporins, beta-lactam antibiotics.
UNIT IV: Chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, macrolides, polymixins, polypeptides.
UNIT V: Aminoglycosides and other antibiotics.
UNIT VI: Anti-protozoans, anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides.
UNIT VII: Antituberculosis, antifungal, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs. 
Practical
General methods for assay of chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotic sensitivity
tests, estimation of sulfonamides, penicillins, oxytetracyclines, trimethoprim and nitrofurans in biological fluids to study their kinetics and bioavailability. 
 
 
VPT 608  TOXICOLOGY OF XENOBIOTICS                                       2+1
Objective
  To study the poisonings and their antidotal therapy in animals.
Theory
UNIT I: Principles and scope of toxicology, sources of poisoning.
UNIT II: General modes of action of poisons, detoxification, factors affecting toxicity, general principles of diagnosis and treatment of poisonings.
UNIT III: Toxicology of metals, agrochemicals, solvents and vapors, feed additives.
UNIT IV: Toxic effects of radiations and radioactive chemicals, genetic and developmental toxicology; forensic and regulatory aspects of toxicology. 
Practical
Extraction, separation and detection of common poisons in toxicological
specimens, study of toxicity and antidotal treatment in animals, designing of
animal toxicity experiments and general toxicity tests.
 
VPT 609  TOXICOLOGY OF PLANTS AND TOXINS             2+0
 Objective
To impart  knowledge of toxicity of poisonous plants & natural toxins.
Theory
  UNIT I: Classification, identification and chemical constituents of poisonous plants.
Plants containing cyanide, nitrate/nitrite, oxalate, lectins and cardiotoxic glycosides.
 UNIT II: Plants producing lathyrism, thiamine deficiency and photosensitization.
  UNIT III:Toxicology of mycotoxins: aflatoxins, rubratoxins, ochratoxins,  trichothecenes, tremorgens and ergot.
UNIT IV: Animal bites and stings: snake venom, scorpion, spider and insect stings and toad poisoning. Bacterial toxins: botulism. 
 
VPT 610   PHARMACOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES              1+1 
Objective
To impart the knowledge of various basic pharmacological techniques and
screening methods of drugs.
Theory
UNIT I: Principles of drug action and bioassay. Dose response curves and their
analysis.
UNIT II: Techniques for setting up isolated and intact preparations.
UNIT III: Organization of screening programme of drugs; multidimensional screening
procedures and gross observational methods. 
Practical
Setting up of isolated and intact preparations, recording of BP in dog/rat,
recording of ECG in rat, experiments on drug potentiation, antagonism and
tachyphylaxis. Construction of dose-response plots, calculation of EC, dissociation rate constants, potency ratio, pAx, pDx and pD’ values.Specific tests for evaluation of tranquillizing, hypnotic, analgesic, anticonvulsant, general and local anesthetic, muscle relaxant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, antihyperglycemic and anticholesterimic activities. Determination of potency ratio, median effective, toxic or lethal doses. Bioassay techniques.
 
VPT 611  TECHNIQUES IN TOXICOLOGY                      1+1
Objective
To understand the animal toxicity tests and assessment of various toxicants
using specific tests.
Theory
UNIT I: Animal models in toxicological studies.
UNIT II: Animal toxicity tests for acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity.
UNIT III: Specific toxicity tests for neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental,
behavioural, reproductive and inhalation toxicity, mutagencity, carcinogenicity.
UNIT IV: Animal toxicological tests for the study of metabolism, synergism and antagonism.
Practical
Tests for acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity, protocols and various specific toxicity tests. Assay for marker enzymes, analysis of toxicant residues in biological materials.
 
 
VPT 612  ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY                         2+0
 Objective
To impart the knowledge and importance of traditional Indian medicine.
Theory
UNIT I: Historical aspects: Traditional Indian remedies and regional folklore in
disease cure.
UNIT II: Classification, identification and chemical constituents of medicinal plants. Extraction, distillation, evaporation and other processes used in purification and preparation of active constituents from medicinal plants.
UNIT III: Standardization and clinical validation of bioactive molecules from vegetable sources. Therapeutic and adverse effects of potential herbal drugs. Indigenous drugs used as carminatives, antiseptics, antimicrobials, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory agents.
UNIT IV: Alternate systems of medicine in animals. 

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