Completed Research Projects

Project No. 1
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Studies on blood serum protein pattern in dairy animals
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. A. Kulkarni
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
1971 – 1973
The study investigated the blood serum protein pattern in dairy animals.
 
Project No. 2
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Studies on humoral immune status of the crossbred and indigenous dairy cattle
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. A. Kulkarni
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
June 1988 to May 1992
The suckling neonatal calves had significantly higher total immunoglobulins and IgG levels as compared with bucket fed calves. Compared to 0 hour, the levels of total immunoglobulins significantly decreased at 24 hours, and further there was consistent fall in the total immunoglobulins levels upto one week.  The results indicated that the calves of Gir cross with Jersey and Gir cross with Holstein Friesian showed great adaptability to the hot humid climate of the Konkan region. Further, significantly higher level of seminal plasma IgG was observed in crossbred bulls as compared with Holstein Friesian breeding bulls.
Project No. 3
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Hormonal induction of lactation in dairy cattle for increased milk production
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. T. Deshmukh
Funding Agency
:
Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth – Bombay Veterinary College
Duration of the Research Project
:
July 1989 to June 1991
The results of this study indicated that treatment with oestradiol – 17b and progesterone is a viable method of inducing lactation in infertile cows. The quality and quantity of induced milk is comparable to that of the normal lactating animals. The levels oestradiol and progesterone in blood serum and milk did not exceed those found in serum and milk of normal cows.
Project No. 4      
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Thyroid hormones concentration in relation to stage of lactation in crossbred cows
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. T. Deshmukh
Funding Agency
:
Department of Atomic Energy (D.A.E), Government of India, Mumbai
Duration of the Research Project
:
June 1992 to May 1995
The concentration of thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine did not differ and remained almost the same during early, mid and late stages of lactation The average milk yield in early stage of lactation was significantly higher (P<0.01) than the yields in mid and late stages of lactation. The yields in the mid and late stages of lactation did not differ.
In early lactation, the levels of thyroxine were negatively correlated with milk yield. It was suggested that lower thyroxine of plasma was associated with higher lactational performance, possibly due to greater utilization of plasma thyroxine in higher producers.
Project No. 5
Title of the Project
:
Emeritus Scientist’s Scheme: Studies on seminal plasma proteins of the Indian Buffalo and Cattle
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. A. Kulkarni
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
February 1993 to January 1996
Seminal plasma protein profiles of normal fertile, subfertile and infertile buffalo and different breeds of cattle (HF, Jersey crosses) bulls were studied by using Sephadex gel filtration chromatography, Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrelamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE), Two dimensional high resolution polyacrelamide gel electrophoresis (2 DHR – PAGE), Isoelectric focusing immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion analysis. This study established heterogenisity of seminal plasma proteins of cattle and buffalo bulls. Distinct difference in the SDS – PAGE pattern of sperm proteins, seminal plasma and blood plasma proteins was evident in both the species. Seminal plasma total proteins, albumin, globulin and creatinine concentrations were lowest in Jersey and highest in HF bulls.
Project No. 6
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Application of growth hormone biotechnology in dairy cattle for increased milk production
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. T. Deshmukh
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
July 1994 to June 1998
The results of this study clearly established that administration of recombinantly derived bovine somatotropin causes significant increase in milk production (17.26% to 21.96%, FCM yield 21.03% to 24.26%) in crossbred cows. Milk fat, protein, lactose, ash & total solids percentages are unaffected by bovine somatotropin treatment. Dry-matter intake remained almost the similar in control and treated cows but a feed efficiency was apparently better in treated cows. The increase in milk production observed in this study could be due to partitioning of nutrients towards the mammary gland for milk synthesis & away from use by body tissues.The percentages of cows remaining pregnant and calving rate were almost comparable in bovine somatotropin treated & control cows. Services per conception were lower in 250 mg & 500 mg groups when compared with controls, suggesting that services per conception were not affected due to bST treatment. Bovine somatotropin treatment had no discernible effect on gestation length. The animals maintained good health throughout.
Project No. 7
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Haematological and trace element profile in different physiological states of dairy animals
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. (Mrs.) B. A. Talvelkar
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
July 1997 to February 2001
The study was conducted on 180 Gir x Jersey and Gir x HF crossbred calves, heifers and 221 crossbred cows. Effect of growth, pregnancy and lactation on haematological parameters and serum Fe, Cu, Co, Zn and Mn concentrations was studied. The results revealed that erythrocyte and leucocyte count increased with age in calves. Serum iron and copper levels significantly increased during maturity. This may be due to high estrogenic activity during puberty. During pregnancy decreasing trend in iron values were recorded which could be attributed to placental iron transport. Serum Cu level was maintained at elevated plateau in early pregnancy as Cu is involved in brain and nervous tissue development of foetus. The increasing trend in serum Fe values during lactation may reflect increased ceruloplasmin synthesis. Changes in Co concentration during lactation period might be related to its demand and utilization during stages of lactation.
Project No. 8
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Studies on inhibin immunization for improving fertility of the Indian Buffalo
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. T. Deshmukh
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
December 2000 to  November 2003
a) Comparative study of seminal characteristics, serum inhibin, gonadotropins, testosterone and seminal plasma inhibin activity in buffalo and cow bulls: The results revealed that the volume of ejaculate was lower in buffalo bulls than in cow bulls. The sperm concentration per ml was however, similar in buffalo and cow bulls. The other seminal characters viz., seminal pH, per cent live sperm, per cent abnormal sperm, per cent normal sperm and per cent acrosomal intactness remained almost similar in buffalo and cow bulls.
The serum testosterone concentration was about 6 times lower in buffalo bulls. The serum FSH concentration was comparatively lower in buffalo bulls than that in cow bulls. Small difference in FSH concentration of Murrah, Holstein Friesian, Jersey and crossbreds bulls however was not statistically significant. The serum LH and inhibin concentrations were higher in buffalo bulls than in cow bulls. The Buffalo bulls due to their black skin coat are more prone to heat stress and probably due to this reason, they require more LH concentration to maintain basal testosterone level. Seminal plasma inhibin activity was higher in buffalo bulls than in cow bulls, except in crossbred bulls, which was almost similar. Serum FSH concentration was positively correlated with seminal plasma inhibin activity in cow bulls.
b) Effect of inhibin immunization on seminal characteristics, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations in buffalo bulls: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of immunization against porcine inhibin alpha 1-32 (pIα1-32) on seminal characteristics, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations in buffalo bulls. The result of radioimmunoassay of inhibin antibody titer and Ouchterlony’s diffusion test revealed that no lines of precipitation were observed. It was suggestive of absence of antibodies against pIα1–32 in serum samples of immunized buffalo bulls. The failure to elicit the immune response in immunized buffalo bulls might be due to insufficient dose of immunogen or failure of immunogen to evoke immune response in buffalo bulls.
Except transient variations, immunization against inhibin did not affect the seminal characteristics viz.; volume of ejaculate (ml), seminal pH, sperm concentration (million / ml), sperm concentration (million / ejaculate), mass activity, per cent initial motility, per cent live sperm, per cent abnormal sperm and per cent acrosomal intactness.
The serum FSH, LH and testosterone concentrations did not significantly differ and remained almost similar in control and inhibin–immunized buffalo bulls. Further at primary and booster immunization, the levels of FSH and LH remained unaffected except testosterone which in comparison with pre – immunization levels, showed a significant increase at primary and 1st booster immunizations, followed by 2nd and 3rd boosters, in both control and inhibin–immunized buffalo bulls. The increase may be attributable to a non-specific response to Freund’s adjuvant, which constituted the bulk in both, inhibin immunized and control groups. During the two-hour blood collection period, the mean serum FSH, LH and testosterone concentrations in both control and inhibin–immunized buffalo bulls remained unaffected. Among the samplings at 20 minutes intervals, the mean serum FSH and LH also remained unaffected. However, a progressive increase in the serum testosterone concentration was recorded in both control and inhibin–immunized buffalo bulls. The significance of this finding is unclear. On the basis of these results, it is suggested to undertake studies involving more number of boosters with higher immunogen quantity to evince the antibody response.
Project No. 9
Title of the Project
:
Emeritus Scientist’s Scheme: Studies on Haematological and Enzyme Profiles in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and their influence on Milk Production and reproductive Efficiency
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. (Mrs.) B. A. Talvelkar
Funding Agency
:
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
Duration of the Research Project
:
2005 to  2007
Project No. 10
Title of the Project
:
Adhoc Research Scheme: Hormone assays and endocrine applications for optimization of production of buffalo
Principal Investigator
:
Dr. B. T. Deshmukh
Funding Agency
:
DAE, BRNS, Mumbai
Duration of the Research Project
:
2007 to  2010
The results of the study indicated that the average age at puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers was 28.35 ± 0.08 months with an average body weight of 361.42 ± 1.34 kg. The serum progesterone profile could be used as the criterion for cyclicity commencement in the present study. The gradual rise and highest GH concentration at prepubertal period indicates gradual development and maturation of reproductive organs. Thus, GH is an important regulator in the process of sexual differentiation and pubertal maturation in buffalo heifers. The increase in serum FSH in prepubertal and pubertal heifers indicated that the heifers had attained puberty and this change in FSH could be associated with waves of follicular development during ovulatory cycles. Further, the high concentration of serum LH in prepubertal heifers is a critical event which leads to onset of puberty and helps to trigger initiation and organization of cyclic ovarian activity in buffalo heifers. The sharp decrease in serum T3 and T4 concentrations after birth could be attributed to the phenomena of adaptation, as the calves remain under stress for a considerable time after birth due to extra uterine environment which is substantiated by high circulatory levels of cortisol. The high thyroid levels during prepubertal stage may be necessary for gain in weight. The increase in serum estradiol around puberty is followed by increase in body weight. This rise in body weight reflected the development and maturation of reproductive organs as well as skeletal maturation. The high concentration of cortisol after birth may be due to exposure of calves to stressful external environment and in prepubertal and pubertal heifers which could be attributed to the stress due to high environmental temperature during summer.
The results indicated that the average gestation length in Murrah buffaloes recorded was 321 ± 2.65 days. The growth hormone level in serum remained unaffected during gestation. The concentration of serum FSH exhibited increasing trend from early to mid gestation, the levels were low during late gestation. The LH and estradiol concentrations in serum exhibited increasing trend from early through late gestation. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone was higher during mid gestation followed by late and early stages. Higher concentration of serum T3 and T4 was recorded during mid gestation. The T4 : T3 ratio however, was higher during late gestation followed by early and mid gestation. The serum progesterone and cortisol concentrations remained unalterd during gestation. The differences in serum hormone patterns in aborted buffalo and the buffaloes delivering a normal living calf were observed. The relationship of gestation fortnights with serum hormones revealed that the gestational fortnights were positively correlated with serum GH and estradiol and negatively with serum cortisol. The serum GH was negatively correlated with serum cortisol. The serum FSH was positively correlated with serum T3.  The serum T3 was negatively correlated with serum T4 : T3 ratio. Other relationships were statistically non significant.

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