PG Syllbus

PG Syllabus
First Year M.V.Sc.
Veterinary Physiology
Semester I: VPY 601 (Physiology of Digestion)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1 – 2
Basic characteristics and comparative physiology of digestive system of domestic animals
3 – 4
Gastro-intestinal motility
5 – 10
Secretary functions of gastro-intestinal tract and their regulation
11 – 12
Gastro-intestinal hormones
13 – 16
Absorption, metabolism and excretion of various nutrients
17 – 18
Appetite and control of feed intake
19 –  20
Development of ruminant system and rumen environment
21 – 24
Ruminant microbial digestion, its advantages and disadvantages
25 – 26
Rumino-reticular motility, its significance and control
27
Rumen microbiology
28
Digestion in birds
Semester I: VPY 602 (Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1
Heart muscle, heart as pump, origin and propagation of heart beat
2 – 4
Electrophysiology of heart, rhythmic excitation of heart, cardiac cycle
5
Heart sound and dynamics of valvular and congenital heart defect
6 – 7
Cardiac output and its measurements, factors affecting cardiac output. Venous return and its regulation.
8 – 9
Control of the heart
10
Normal electro-cardiogram
11 – 12
Electrocardiographic interpretation in cardiac myopathies and cardiac arrhythmias
13
Circulation and haemodynamics
14 – 16
Coronary, systemic and pulmonary circulation & their regulation
17 – 18
Energetics of circulation, pathophysiology of circulation
19 – 20
Respiration, mechanism of ventilation
21
Haemoglobin
22 – 24
Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Respiratory gas exchange
25
Respiratory adjustment at high altitude and deep swimming
26 – 27
Neural and chemical control of respiration, artificial respiration
28
Respiration in birds
Semester I: VPY 603 (Renal Physiology and Body Fluid Dynamics)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1 – 2
An overview of nephron structure and function
3 – 5
Renal homeostatic function and renal excretory function
6
Quantitative analysis of renal function
7
Renal haemodynamics
8 – 10
Glomerular filtration: its mechanism and measurement
11 – 13
Selectivity permeability of the glomerular capillary wall, structural basis of GFR
14 – 16
Tubular reabsorption and transport
17 – 18
Role of kidney in acid–base balance
19 – 20
Physiology of micturition, endocrine control of renal function
21
Non excretory functions of kidney
22 – 23
Skin- general anatomy of epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. Mechanical protection, permeability, actinic irradiation
24
Sweat glands, sebaceous glands. Skin grafting. Immune properties of skin
25 – 27
Composition of body fluids and their regulation
28
Excretory system in birds
Semester II: VPY 604 (Haematology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1
Blood Cells
2
Anemia
3
Types of Polycythemia
4 – 5
Effects of Anemia and Polycythemia in mammals and birds
6
Leucocytes and tissue macrophage system.
7
Inflammation
8 – 9
Immunoglobulins – IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE.
10
Immunity – Types
11
Immunogenetics
12 – 1 4
Polymorphism in Hemoglobin and Transferrin
15
Blood changes in disease conditions: Coagulopathy
16
Blood changes in disease conditions: Anemias
17
Blood changes in disease conditions: Parasitic diseases
18
Blood changes in disease conditions: Impairment in clotting mechanism
19
Blood changes in disease conditions: Diabetes
20
Blood changes in disease conditions: Acidosis, alkalosis and other diseases)
21
Iatrogenic blood diseases: Cushing disease in dogs
22
Iatrogenic blood diseases: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, other diseases during blood transfusion
23
Hemorrhagic diathesis
24
Hemophilia
25
Coagulation factors
26
Platelets – Role in Coagulation
27
Fibrinolysis
28
Fibrinolysis
29
Blood groups
30
Transfusion of blood
31
Conditions causing bleeding disorders: Disseminated intravascular coagulation
32
Conditions causing bleeding disorders: Haemophilias
33
Tissue and organ transplantation
34
Tissue and organ transplantation
Semester II: VPY 605 (Vitamins and Minerals in Animal Physiology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1
Introduction to vitamins & minerals in physiology
2
Historical background and importance of study
3
Definition and classification of vitamins
4 – 5
Overview of functions and properties
6 – 7
Vitamin A: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
8 – 9
Vitamin D: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
10 – 11
Vitamin E: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
12 – 13
Vitamin K: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
14 – 18
Vitamin B Complex: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
19 – 20
Vitamin C: Classification, metabolism, functions, deficiency and toxicity
21
Calcium and Phosphorus: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
22
Sodium & Potassium: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
23
Chloride & Sulphur: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
24
Copper  & Cobalt: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
25
Iodine  & Iron: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
26
Manganese & Molybdenum: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
27
Selenium & Zinc: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
28 – 2 9
Other micro minerals: Function, homeostasis, source, deficiency & toxicity
30
Toxic minerals
31 – 32
Role of vitamins and minerals in growth and reproduction
Semester II: VPY 606 (Physiology of Animal Reproduction)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1
Functional Histomorphology of male reproductive system
2
Development of male sex organs
3
Functional Histomorphology of female reproductive system
4
Development of female sex organs
5
Puberty in males and females and factors affecting puberty
6
Hormones of Reproduction – male reproductive system
7 – 9
Hormones of Reproduction – female reproductive system
10 – 11
Oestrous Cycle – endocrinology and cytology
12 – 13
Sexual  behavior exhibited in females
14 – 15
Oogenesis, Folliculogenesis and Ovulation
16
Secretions of female reproductive tracts in animals
17
Male mating behavior
18 – 20
Spermatogenesis, Spermiogenesis and Seminiferous epithelial cycles
21 – 23
Spermatozoa : Structure and composition; Maturation & Transport
24
Secretions of male reproductive tracts
25
Transport of male and female gametes
26
Fertilization & Implantation
27 – 29
Pregnancy
30 – 31
Parturition
32
Post partum recovery in different species of animals
Semester II: VPY 607 (Clinical physiology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
Topic
1
Heart, cardiac cycle
2
Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system.
3 – 4
Evaluation of Heart in disease conditions
5 – 6
Evaluation of Respiratory system in disease conditions
7 – 8
Hepatic evaluation in disease conditions
9 – 10
Renal evaluation in disease conditions
11 – 12
Carbohydrate metabolism in normal condition and disease conditions
13 – 14
Fat  metabolism in normal condition and disease conditions
15 – 16
Protein metabolism in normal condition and disease conditions
17 – 18
Mineral metabolism in normal condition and disease conditions
19 – 20
Functions and dysfunctions of Liver
21 – 22
Functions and dysfunctions of Kidneys
23 – 24
Functions and dysfunctions of Gastro Intestinal Tract
25 – 26
Immune response and its clinical evaluation
27 – 28
Immunological evaluation of immune response
29 – 30
Enzymes and their importance
32 – 36
Tests for enzymes (SGOT, SGPT LDH, AKP)
Semester II: VPY 608 (Neuromuscular physiology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
Topic
1 – 3
Types and classification of muscles, comparative histopathology of muscles
4 – 7
Properties of skeletal muscle fibers, membrane and action potential at myo-neuronal junction
8 – 9
Molecular characteristics of contractile filaments, molecular mechanism of muscle contraction
10 – 12
Relationship between actin and myosin filaments, overlap and tension developed by the contracting muscles
13
Length and tension relationship, force and velocity relationship of skeletal muscle
14
Contractile process of smooth muscles
15 – 16
Skeletal muscle energetics, metabolism and lactate shuttle
17 – 18
Exercise, adaptation to training and performance
19
Neuromuscular disorders of domestic animals
20 – 22
Nervous system, synapse, transmission and processing of information, receptors
23
Brain and spinal reflexes
24 – 27
Motor functions of brain stem, limbic system, memory, sleep and learning
28 – 30
Autonomic nervous system
31 – 32
Special senses and somatic senses
Semester II: VPY 609 (Chemical bioregulation in physiological functions)
Credit Hours: 3 + 0 = 3
1 – 2
Methods of study in bioregulation including methods of endocrine analysis
3 – 4
Manipulation and disruption of biorhythms in homeostatic and natural ecosystem
5
Concepts in hormone function
6 – 7
Genetic and genomic approaches in endocrinology. Animal models and alternate uses of animal model
8 – 10
Classification of hormones on the basis of chemical nature, location of endocrine glands and on the basis of physiological functions
11 – 13
Methods of study – hormonal assay (bioassay, RIA and ELISA)
14 – 15
Mechanism of hormone synthesis, release and transport
16 – 18
Mechanisms of hormone action, target cell interactions
19 – 22
Regulation and metabolism of hypothalamic, hypophyseal hormones
23 – 24
Regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones
25 – 26
Regulation and metabolism of adrenal hormones
27 – 30
Regulation and mechanism of action of gonadal and placental hormones
31
Hormonal principles of pineal gland and its role in production
32 – 33
Endocrine control of carbohydrate homeostasis
34 – 35
Endocrine control of calcium homeostasis
36 – 37
Hormones and adaptation to environment
38
Hormonal regulation of gastro-intestinal activity
39 – 40
Prostaglandins (Physiological and therapeutic role)
41 – 43
Hormones in fertility regulation (Female and male)
44 – 46
Hormones in production augmentation. Hormonal relationship in animal production
47 – 48
Avian endocrinology
First Year M.V.Sc.
Veterinary Biochemistry
Semester I: VBC 601 (Chemistry of Animal Cell)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1]         Pre-biotic world and chemical evolution.
2-3]      Cellular architecture and molecular organization of cell.
4]         Metabolic functions of cell.
UNIT II
5]         Thermodynamics,
6]         Chemical equilibrium and standard state.
7-8]      Living cell as steady state and open system obeying laws of thermodynamics.
9]         Minimum energy conformation.
10-11]  Quantum mechanical calculation. 
12]       ∆G and ATP.
UNIT III
13]       Properties of water.
14]       Homeostasis
15]       Colloids and determination of size of colloidal particles.
16]       Brownian motion, precipitation, mutual precipitation and protective colloids.
17]       Dialysis and ultrafiltration
18-19]  Donnan’s theory of membrane equilibrium, membrane hydrolysis
20-21]  Application of physicochemical laws in living organisms (osmosis, viscosity, surface forces, adsorption, etc.)
22]       Bronsted’s theory of Acids and Bases, titratable and actual acidity.
23]       Determination of pH, Henderson – Hasselbalch Equation
24]       Buffers and factors affecting buffering capacity.
25]       Bicarbonate buffer system, Phosphate buffer system,
26]       Protein buffer system and Haemoglobin buffer system.
27]       Amino acid buffer system, buffer of RBC’s and plasma.
28-29]  Chemical basis of oral and parental fluid/electrolyte therapies
30]       Bacterial toxigenic diarrhoeas
31]       Problem solving – Lecture1 to12.
32]       Problem solving – Lecture13 to30.
 
Semester I: VBC 602 (Techniques in Biochemistry)
Credit Hours: 0 + 2 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Practical No.
                                                      Topics
1]         Solving problems using Henderson–Hasselbalch equation regarding pH.
2]         Determination of pKa and buffer concentration
3]         Calculation of normality.
4]         Principle and application of colorimetry and spectrophotometry.
5]         Application NMR-X ray crystallography. (Theoritocal back ground).
6]         Principle and application of Paper Chromatography.
7]         Principle and application of Thin Layer Chromatography.
8]         Principles and applications of Column chromatography.
9]         Partition chromatography and adsorption co-efficient.
10]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of amino acids.
11]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of lipids.
12]       Quantitative and qualitative chromatography of sugars. (Theoritocal back ground)
13]       Elution following Column chromatography. 
14]       Gas chromatography. (Theoritocal back ground)
15]       Packing of column and choice of detectors and densitometry.
16]       Application of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis of proteins.
17]       Electrophoresis of nucleic acids.
18]       Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and molecular weight determination.
19]       Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and molecular weight determination.
20]       Densitometry procedures and quantitative assays.
21]       Immuno-electrophoresis and its applications.
22-23]  Preparation of agar/agarose gel for immuno-electrophoresis.
24]       Isoelectrofocussing.
25]       Isotacophoresis.
26]       Molecular sieving and its application in Biochemistry.
27]       General properties of dextran, acrylamide, agar and other media used for gel filtration.
28]       Ultracentrifugation– its principle and use.
29-30]  Preparative analytical and density gradient ultracentrifugation.
31]       Fractionation of sub-cellular components.
32]       Molecular weight determination using ultracentrifuge.
Semester I: VBC 603 (Applications of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Biology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1]         Nucleotides and nucleic acids.
2]         High order structures, cohesions and condensins in chromosome structure.
3]         SMC proteins and sequencing.
4]         Mutation and evolution.
5]         DNA libraries.
6]         Bacterial RNA polymerase.
7]         RNA interference.
8]         DNA replication.
9]         RNA synthesis.
10]       Control of gene expression.
11]       DNA microarrays/chips.
UNIT II
12]       PCR and factors affecting it.
13]       r-DNA technology in improving domestic animals.
14]       RELP, Gene and gene products.
15]       Genetic changes in hereditary diseases, cancer and detection using DNA probes.
16]       Gene Therapy, DNA vaccines, anti-tumor antibodies.
17]       Telomerases and Topoisomerases in treatment of diseases.
18]       Staphylococcus resistance to erythromycin.
UNIT III
19]       Peptide bonds and protein structure.
20]       Acid-base properties and stereochemistry of proteins.
21]       Side chain modifications and biological activities of proteins.
22]       Green fluorescent protein and use.
23]       Polypeptide diversity, protein purification and analysis.
24]       Protein sequencing, reconstructing the protein sequence.
25]       Gene duplication and protein families.
26]       Protein modules, combinatorial peptide libraries folding.
27]       Structural bio-informatics.
28]       Protein structure prediction, designing and Proteomics.
29]       Drug molecules, myoglobin and haemoglobin.
30]       Mechanism and co-operativity in Hb.
31]       High altitude adaptation in ruminants and equines.
32]       Use of amino acid analysis in disease diagnosis.
Semester I: VBC 604 (Biochemistry of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids and Membrane’s Structure)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I          
1]         Carbohydrates: structure
2]         Glycoconjugates in cell surface, extra cellular matrix,
3]         Sugar code functions, peptidoglycan-specific antibiotics
4]         Cellular effects of Insulin
5]         Glucose supply and removal
6]         Ruminal fermentation
7]         Role of liver
8]         Glucose tolerance, indirect monitoring of blood glucose
9]         Ketone bodies
UNIT II         
10]       Lipid classification,
11]       Metabolism of LCFA, TAG, PL,
12]       Sphingolipids, cholesterol, lipoproteins
13]       Regulation of lipid metabolism in fed and fasted states
14]       Regulation of FA oxidation, fas as regulatory molecules
15]       Glucose production and fas in type II diabetes
16]       Ketone bodies as fuel.
UNIT III       
17]       Lipid bilayers, lipid motility,
18]       Integral membrane proteins, lipid linked proteins, peripheral membrane proteins
19]       Fluid mosaic model, membrane skeleton,
20]       Lipid asymmetry, vesicle trafficking
21]       Secretory pathway, membrane rafts
22]       Caveolae fusion
23]       Lung surfactant
24]       Structure of bacterial rhodopsin
25]       Thermodynamics of membrane transport
26]       Ionophores, porins, ion channels, aquaporins, transport proteins
27]       P and F types (Na+ – K+ ) atpases
28]       Ca , Ion–gradient, Gap Junction,
29]       Cl–HCO-  exchanger
30]       Cardiac  2+3 glycosides
31]       Abnormalities in cell membrane fluidity
32]       Haemolytic anaemia
Semester I: VBC 605 (Enzyme Catalysis, Kinetics, Inhibition and Regulation)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1]         Introduction to the enzymes their classification and functions.
2]         Enzyme activation energy.
3]         Mechanisms of acid-base reaction co-ordination.
4]         Mechanisms of covalent reaction co-ordination.
5]         Mechanisms of metal ion reaction co-ordination. 
6]         Proximity and orientation effects.
7]         Preferential transitional state binding. 
UNIT II
8]         Chemical kinetics of reaction.
9]         Enzyme kinetics of reaction.
10]       Kinetic data analysis.
11]       Bisubstrate reactions.
12-13]  Competitive, Uncompetitive, Mixed inhibitors.
14]       Allosteric regulation.
15]       Enzymes in drug designing.
16]       Enzymes in drug discovery.
17]       Bioavailability and toxicity.
18]       Enzymes in clinical trials. 
19]       Cytochrome P450 and adverse drug reactions.
20]       Synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycans.
21]       Synthesis of Oxygenases.
22]       Synthesis of mixed function oxidases.
23]       Enzyme linked diagnostics.
UNIT III
24]       Lysozymes.
25]       Serine proteases.
26]       Physiology and tumor cell metastasis.
27]       Nerve poisons.
28]       Blood coagulation cascade.
29]       Equine immuno-deficiency enzyme inhibitors.
30]       Suicide activators (DFMO for inhibition of ornithine decarboxylases in trypanosomiasis).
31]       Problem solving – Lecture1 to12.
32]       Problem solving – Lecture13 to30.
Semester II: VBC 606 (Metabolism – I: Carbohydrates and Lipids)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I          
1]         Metabolic control,
2]         Analyses for enzymes limiting the flux through a pathway.
3]         Trophic strategies,
4]         Universal mapping of metabolic pathways
5]         Thermodynamic relationships. G,
6]         ATP and phosphoryl group transfer
7]         Coupled reactions, thioesters,
8]         NAD+ and FAD.
UNIT II         
9]         Overview of carbohydrate and lipid cycles,
10]       Control of glycolysis
11]       Glycolysis in cancer cells
12]       Control of pentose phosphate pathways
13]       Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
14]       Control of glycogen metabolism
15]       Control of gluconeogenesis
16]       GSD.
17]       Regulation of citric acid cycle
18]       Pathways that use citric acid intermediates
19]       Sugar interconversions and nucleotide – linked sugar formation
20]       Disorders associated with impairment of metabolism
UNIT III       
21]       Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
22]       Generation of heat by uncoupling in brown adipose tissue.  
UNIT IV
23]       Regulation of fatty acid metabolism
24]       Inhibitors of fatty acids biosynthesis
25]       Sphingolipid degradation
26]       Lipid storage disease
27]       Regulation of cholesterol synthesis
28]       PGs in NSAID
29]       Leukotrienes
30]       HETEs
31]       Hypersensitivity
32]       Influence of glucose metabolism on lipid metabolism
Semester II: VBC 607 (Metabolism – II: Nucleic Acids and Amino Acids)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I          
1]         Overview of pathways of amino acid
2]         Overview of pathways of nucleic acid metabolism
3]         Lysosomal degradation
4]         Ubiquitin
5]         Proteosome
6]         Breakdown of amino acids
7]         Heme biosynthesis and degradation
8]         Biosynthesis of physiologically active amines
9]         Nitric oxide
10]       Homocystein as marker of disease
11-12]  Diseases of amino acid metabolism
13]       Porphyrias
UNIT II         
14]       Nucleotide synthesis and degradation
15]       Inhibition of thymidylate synthesis in cancer therapy
16]       Mutation in coenzyme binding sites and diseases
17]       Forces stabilizing NA structure
18]       Restriction endonucleases
19]       Small inhibitory RNAs
20]       Chromatin organization
21]       Inhibitors of topoisomerases as antibiotic
22]       Anti-cancer agents interfering with purine and pyramidine metabolism
UNIT III        
23]       Viral nucleic acids
24]       DNA damage and repair
25]       Telomerase
26]       Ageing and cancer
27]       Topoisomerases as drug targets
28]       Chemotherapy can target precursors of DNA synthesis
29]       Antibiotics and toxins that target RNA polymerase
30]       Lysosomal enzymes
31]       Gout
32]       Diseases in purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolic impairment
 
Semester II: VBC 608 (Metabolism – III: Integration and Regulation)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I          
1]         Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism
2]         Regulation of lipid metabolism
3]         Regulation of protein metabolism
4]         Regulation of nucleic acid metabolism
5]         Integration all metabolic pathways
UNIT II
6]         Organ specialization in fuel metabolism: Brain, muscle
7]         Organ specialization in fuel metabolism: adipose tissue, liver, kidney
8]         Inter organ metabolic pathways
9]         Hormonal control of fuel metabolism
10]       Tracing metabolic fates perturbing the system
UNIT III       
11]       Signal transduction, gated ion channels
12]       G-proteins
13]       Adenylate cyclase, cGMP,  Ca2+
14]       Receptor tyrosine kinase
15]       Protein phosphatases
16]       Interaction of Ca2+ with phosphoserine/tyrosine
17]       Integrations of proteins/ messengers in signal transduction
18]       Drugs and toxins
19]       Cell cycle and CDKs that affect cell signaling
UNIT IV       
20]       Oncogenes and cancers
21]       Mitochondrial genes and diseases
22]       Reactive oxygen species
23]       Cyanide and arsenic poisoning
24]       Metabolic inter-relationships in obesity, diabetes, and cancer
25]       Metabolic inter-relationships in aerobic and anaerobic exercise in horses
26]       Metabolic inter-relationships in pregnancy, lactation and stress injury
27]       Mitochondria in apoptosis and oxidative stress, cell suicide
28]       Liver diseases
29]       Renal diseases
30]       Acid-base balance
31]       Metabolic/sensory transduction in nervous tissue
32]
Vision, blood coagulation
 
Semester II: VBC 609 (Central Dogma and Protein)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I            
1]         Overview of transcription and translation in eukaryotes
2]         Collision between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase
3]         Inhibitors of transcription
4]         Introns
5]         Evolution and expansion of the genetic code
UNIT II
6]         The effects of antibiotics and toxins on protein synthesis     
7]         X – chromosome inactivation
8]         Eukaryotic gene expression
9]         Protein targeting
UNIT III         
10]       Actin structure
11]       Microfilament dynamics
12]       Actin-myosin reacting cycle
13]       Tubulin dimmer
14]       Microtubules dynamics
15]       Kinensins and dyeins
UNIT IV         
16]       Antigen-antibody binding
17]       Cytokines
18]       Principles of immunochemical methods
19]       Agglutination, precipitation
20]       Typing of major histo-compatibility antigens
21]       Blood group substances in farm animals
UNIT V           
22]       Proteins as infectious agents (prions – BSE).
23]       Protein misfolding and aggregation
24]       Plasma proteins, synthesis, functions
25]       Influences of physiological factors and inflammation on proteins
26]       Dysproteinemias
27]       Defects in collagen synthesis
28]       Transmissible multiple drug resistance
29]       Transcription factors and cardiovascular diseases
30]       Transferrin
31]       Lactoferrin
32]       Ferritin and Ceruloplasmin
Semester II: VBC 610 (Clinical Biochemistry of Animals)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1-3]      Disturbances of gastro-intestinal function- Irritable Bowel Syndrone Ulcerative Collitis
4-6]      Disturbances of rumen function. – Bloat (Tympany), urea poisoning, acute rumen indigestion, Lactic acidosis
7-8]      Pickled pigs and malignant hyperthermia.
9-10]    Diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Eg. mitochondrialdiseases
UNIT II
11]       Myocardial infarction,
12]       Respiratory distress syndrome.
13-14]  Primary renal dysfunctions and test, 
15-16]  Doping. Problems in game horses.
UNIT III
17-18]  Enzymes of diagnostic importance.
19-20]  Toxicity of ammonia in animals.Genetic defects in urea cycle.
21]       Lysosomal storage diseases.
22-23]  ATP synthase inhibitory protein during ischemia. Ischaemic – reperfusion injury.
UNIT IV
24-25]  Molecular oncology and tumor markers.
26]       CSF characteristics in diseases.
27]       Clinical Biochemistry in toxicology.
28]       Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c, fructosamine.
29]       Deranged glucose metabolism in cancerous tissue.
30]       Free Radical damage.
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-16
32]       Problem solving for lectures 17-30
Semester III: VBC 606 (Biochemical Basis of Diseases of Domestic Animals)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1]         Diabetes mellitus
2-3]      Hyperinsulemia, galactosemia, hypoglycaemia of baby pigs,
4]         Glycogen Storage Disease.
5]         Carbohydrate balance in ruminants.
6]         Biochemical alterations in body fluids of ruminants in hypoglycaemia,
7]         Ruminant ketosis. 
UNIT II
8]         Hypercholesterolemia,
9]         Atherosclerosis,
10-11]  hyperlipidemia in canine, feline, equine.
12]       Pathophysiology of ketonemia.
13-14]  Ketosis associated with fasting, diabetes, pregnancy, lactation and post exercise.
UNIT III
15]       Anemias of the newborn,
16-17]  Cytosolic enzyme deficiencies and membrane abnormalities in erythrocytes.
18]       Porphyrins and porphyrias.
19]       Disorders of iron metabolism,
21]       Neutrophil function defects and its testing.
22]       Equine immuno-deficiency.
UNIT IV
23-24]  Hepatic insufficiencies and its laboratory assessment
25-26]  Pancreatitis and insuffiency
27-28]  Metabolic diseases of Ca, P, Mg metabolism
29]       Iron overload and injection
30]       Inorganic polyphosphate metabolism
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1 – 16
32]       Problem solving for lectures 17 – 30
Semester III: VBC 612 (Endocrinology and Reproductive Biochemistry)
Credit Hours: 2 + 0 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1-2]      Mechanism of hormone action
3]         Receptor binding,
4-6]      Biosynthesis of hormones and factors
7-8]      Metabolic aspects in physio-pathology of hormones, factors, and minerals. 
UNIT II
9-10]    Metabolic functions of the hormones of the hypothalamus
11-12]  Metabolic functions of pituitary
13]       Metabolic functions of Thyroid
14]       Metabolic functions of parathyroid
15]       Metabolic functions of pancreas
16-17]  Metabolic functions of adrenal
18]       Metabolic functions of pineal
19]       Metabolic functions of ovaries
20]       Metabolic functions of testes
21-22]  Biochemistry of prostaglandins and related agents.
23-24]  Clinical endocrine aspects in production in domestic animals
25-26] Clinical endocrine aspects in reproduction status in domestic animals
27-28]  Clinical endocrine aspects in production in poultry
29-30] Clinical endocrine aspects in reproduction status in poultry
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-15
32]       Problem solving for lectures 15-30
Semester III: VBC 613 (Biochemical Basis of Animal Production)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture No.
                                                      Topics
UNIT I
1-2]      Chemistry of milk lipids,
3-4]      Chemistry of milk proteins,
5-6]      Chemistry of milk carbohydrates,
7-8]      Chemistry of milk minerals,
9-10]    Chemistry of milk vitamins,
11-12]  Chemistry of milk pigments and enzymes.
13-14]  Structure of milk lipids, fat globular membranes, modification of milk fat.
15-16]  Milk proteins – casein, amino acid composition, whey proteins, immunoglobulins, genetic polymorphism.
17-18]  Carbohydrates: structure and sweetness.
UNIT II
19-20]  The biochemistry controlling postmortem energy metabolism mechanisms.
21-22]  Application of genomic technologies to the improvement of meat quality of farm animals.
23-24]  Identification of meat quality parameters by proteomics.
25-26]  Application of proteomics to understand the molecular mechanisms behind meat quality.
27-28]  Oxidative stability of post mortem muscles from sheep of various ages. 
UNIT III
29-30]  Metabolic demands of draft animals, and biochemical aspects of work and kinesiology.
31]       Problem solving for lectures 1-15
32]       Problem solving for lectures 15-30

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