UG Syllabus

First Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Veterinary Physiology I
Semester I: VPB 111 (Blood, Cardiovascular, Excretory System and Body Fluids)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
Blood
1 & 2
Importance of veterinary physiology and Scope of course; Definition and composition of blood. Plasma, serum; Functions of blood; Properties of blood like haematocrit, ESR, viscosity, osmotic pressure, specific gravity, osmotic fragility (isotonicity, hypertonicity and hypotonicity); Reaction of the blood i.e. blood pH.
3.
Plasma proteins- albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and others; Origin and functions of plasma proteins; Plasma lipids- HDL, LDL and VLDL; Origin and functions of plasma lipids; Blood volume and its determination- direct and indirect methods
4
Erytropoeisis: Reticuloendothelial system, shape, size and number with species, life span, surface; Factors affecting erythropoeisis – hormonal, nutritional and others; Metabolism – Iron absorption, transport, storage and utilization
5 & 6
Chemical structure of haemoglobin; Biosynthesis of haemoglobin; Physiological functions of haemoglobin; Derivatives of haemoglobin- oxyHb, carbaminoHb, carboxyHb, metHb, sulphoHb and myoglobin; Fate of RBCs: intravascular and extra vascular haemolysis, haemoglobin; Degradation, haemoglobinemia, haemoglobinurea, erythrocytic indices, Anemia: classification
7
Platelet: origin, morphology, number and functions; Haemostasis mechanism and its regulation; Coagulation mechanism and coagulating factors; Factors affecting coagulation mechanism
8 & 9
Leukocytes: classification, leucopoeisis, number, life span; Functions of leukocytes: phagocytic, immunogenic and others
Cardiovascular System
10 & 11
Gross morphology of heart; Properties of heart muscles, Metabolism and energetics of cardiac muscles; Specialized excitatory and conduction system of heart; Conduction and Transmission of cardiac impulse; Regulation of heart pumping; Coronary circulation
12 & 13
Cardiac cycle; Cardiac output and its regulation; Properties of pulse: pulsatile flow of blood in artery, Oscillatory flow system of circulation, Pressure pulse contours (normal and abnormal), Pulse wave propagation and shape of pressure pulse.
14
Circulatory mechanics: Functional parts of the circulation (aorta to vena cava), Pressure in different parts of the circulation, Cross section areas and velocity of blood flow; Interrelationships among pressure, flow and resistance: Laminar flow of blood in vessels, Turbulent flow of blood in vessels; Resistance to blood flow: Unit of resistance, Total peripheral vascular resistance and total pulmonary vascular resistance, Conductance and Poiseuille’s law.
15
Nervous control of vascular system: sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of blood vessels, (vasoconstriction and vasodilation); Hormonal and humoral control of vascular system: (epinephrine, nor epinephrin, Angiotensin II, vasopressin, endothelin, bradykinin and histamine).
16 & 17
Control of blood pressure (Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation): Role of NS in rapid control of BP: vasoconstrictor function, cardio-accelerator function and reciprocal inhibition of parasympathetic vagal inhibitory signals (extrinsic), Reflex mechanisms for maintaining normal BP- Baroreceptor reflex, Chemoreceptor reflex, Atrial and Pulmonary artery reflexes, Volume reflex, Bainbridge reflex (intrinsic). Vagal escape, Circulating fluid volume control of blood pressure: role of venous return (intrinsic), Other factors: pressure diuresis and pressure natriuresis and Renin – Angiotensin – Aldosterone system (extrinsic).
18
Regional circulation to vital organs: (Cerebral, Pulmonary, Coronary, Renal); Foetal circulation; Capillary exchange-forces/pressures causing filtration and reabsorption at arterial and venous end of capillaries; Circulatory control during exercise and shock stress.
19 & 20
Electrocardiography: Definitions, Characteristics of normal ECG. Methods of recording ECG (standard, unipolar, bipolar); Diagnostic uses of ECG recordings in veterinary science; Echocardiography; Terminologies related to cardiac activities.
Excretory System
21
Kidney: Structural and functional morphology of nephron; Renal blood and plasma flow; factors determining renal plasma flow.
22 & 23
Formation of urine: Glomerular filtration: factors determining filtration pressure; Determinants and factors affecting Glomerular Filtration Rate; Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate; Tubular reabsorption (of glucose, protein, amino acids and electrolytes) and its regulation; Tubular secretion and its regulation; Excretion of ammonia
24
Concentrations of urine: counter current mechanism; Glomerulotubular balance: changes in osmolarity in different segments of the tubules; Physiology of micturition; Uremia, terminology related to urinary excretion
25
Methods of studying renal function test: Tests depending upon both blood and urine analysis viz test based on clearance of creatinine, para-amino hippuric acid test, inulin and urea; volume study
26
Formation and excretion in birds: characteristics of nephron type; formation, concentration, composition, flow, and excretion of urine
Body fluids
27 & 28
Body fluid compartments- Intracellular, Extracellular and Transcellular; Ionic and Electrolyte composition in of body fluids; Total osmotic pressure, osmolarity, osmolality; regulation of ECF osmolarity; Electrolyte imbalances: excessive blood loss, diarrhea, vomition and dehydration), regulation of ECF electrolyte: Na, K, Ca, Mg, P concentration;  Regulation of bone metabolism for maintenance of calcium and phosphate ion concentration in body fluids
29
Water imbalances; water intoxication and dehydration; regulation of ECF volume; Physiology of thirst, fluid therapy
30
Regulation of H+ concentration and acid base balance: Buffer systems: bicarbonate, phosphate, haemoglobin and plasma proteins, Respiratory regulation of acid base balance: alveolar ventilation, Renal control of acid base balance: secretion of H+,  reabsorption of HCO3and generation of new HCO3.
31
Acid base imbalances: Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis; Physiological mechanism for correction of acid base imbalance
32
Cerebrospinal fluid: formation, flow composition and functions; Synovial fluid- formation, flow composition, and functions; Other body fluids: intraocular, peritoneal and pericardial lymph
First Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Semester I: VPB 112 (General Veterinary Biochemistry)
Credit Hours: 1 + 1 = 2
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1 & 2
Scope and importance of biochemistry. Buffer system and pH. Dissociation of and Handerson – Hasselbalch equation
3 & 4
Structure of cell membranes and transport across cell membranes. Donnan membrane equilibrium
Biochemistry of carbohydrates: Biological significance (structure and properties) of:
5
Monosaccharides (ribose, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose and amino sugars)
6
Disaccharides (maltose, isomaltose, lactose, sucrose and cellobiose
7
Polysaccharides (starch, dextrins, dextrans, glycogen, cellulose, inulin, chitin)
8
Mucopolysaccharides including bacterial cell wall polysaccharides
Biochemistry of lipids:
9 & 10
Properties (structure) and biological significance of simple, compound and derived lipids and lipoproteins
11
Structure and functions of prostaglandins. Chemistry of bile and bile salts
12
Amino acids: Classification and structure of neutral basic and acidic amino acids
13
Properties of amino acids: amphoteric nature, optical activity and peptide bond formation
14
Structure properties, biological significance and chemical reactions of proteins
Biochemistry of nucleic acids
15
Chemistry of purines and pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides. Biological significance of nucleosides and nucleotides
16
Structures and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and a typical ribonucleic acid
First Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Veterinary Physiology I
Semester II: VPB 121 (Neuromuscular, Digestive and Respiratory systems)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
Digestive System
1 & 2
Introduction and scope of the course. Basic characteristics / functions of digestive system. morphological characteristic of monogastric and polygastric digestive system: comparative aspects herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, etc Developmental aspects of digestion; gastrointestinal motility, importance of colostrums feeding, digestive s3ecrition and microflora development
3
Ingestion, Prehension, Mastication. Deglutition, Salivation, digestion Defecation, Vomition.  Hunger, appetite control, retching, drinking, belching, eructation and rumination.
4
Salivary glands: classification according to location and type of secretion, quantity of saliva secretion, composition of saliva, functions of salivary secretion and regulation of secretion.
5
Gastric glands: structure, secretion and regulation of secretion; Structure, secretion and regulation of secretion of intestine and pancreas; Structure of biliary tract, secretion of bile, composition, function and factors affecting bile secretion.
6 & 7
Enzymatic digestion in monogastric animals. Functions of large intestine
8 & 9
Ruminant digestion: Factors favoring fermentation, functional anatomy of ruminant stomach, developmental aspect of ruminants stomach, rumination; Ruminal bacteria and protozoa; Fermentative and microbial digestion of carbohydrates, protein, and fat; Modification of toxic substances in rumen
10
Absorption: Permeability characteristics of intestine (sites, route or channels and surface of absorption); forces governing absorption (mechanism of absorption); Control intestinal transport of electrolyte and water.
11
Digestion in birds: special characteristics of avian digestive system
Neuromuscular Physiology
12
Muscle physiology : Basic muscle unit characteristics (structural and functional aspect of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle)
13 & 14
Properties of excitable tissues; excitability, conductivity, All or non law, refractory period, summation, adaptation, accommodation, indefatigability; Electrical phenomenon in muscle cell: Membrane potential. Ionic basis of resting membrane potential, muscle action potential, excitation and propagation of impulse characteristics.
15 & 16
Neuromuscular transmission Contractile mechanism – excitation contraction coupling. Types of muscle contraction, , rigor mortis
Nervous system
17
Organization and general functions of nervous system (sensory, consciousness, emotion, motor and visceral control); Mechanism of information processing, hierarchical control; Major functional divisions of nervous system.
18
Basic functional unit: neuron structure, types of neuron, functional characteristics of subunits of neuron. Neurotransmitters.
19
Membrane potential – ionic basis of resting membrane potential (RMP), nerve action potential, excitation and propagation of impulse characteristic latent period-refractiveness, threshold level- All or none characteristics
20
Nerve fiber: classification (histological, and functional, chemical, electrophysiological, system of Lloyd, and physio anatomical); Properties of nerve fiber, degeneration and regeneration of nerve fiber; Synaptic and junctional transmission.
21 & 22
Reflexes: Reflex arc and reflex action, varieties of reflex arc, types of reflexes (conditional and unconditional); Reflexes of brain stem and spinal cord; Control of posture and movements.
23 & 24
Higher function of nervous system (brain parts and functions: cerebral cortex, cerebellum, pons and medulla, hypothalamus etc.) Learning, memory. Wakefulness and sleep cycle; Familiarization with common equipments used in neurophysiology (Oscilloscope, electroencephalography, machine stimulators, etc.)
25
Autonomic nervous system: Functional and anatomical division, functions in general, major differentiating features of CNS and ANS; Differentiating features of sympathetic and parasympathetic division; Specific functions of ANS ( visceral control)
26 & 27
Sense organs and receptors physiology of special senses (types and functions); Eye: functional morphology, nourishment and protection, neural pathway, receptors: optics, ocular muscles and movements, photochemistry, eye defects and eye examinations (aid to clinical evaluation); Ear: Physiology of hearing and common hearing impairment. Vestibule apparatus. Physiology of olfaction and taste.
Respiratory System
28
Functional morphology of respiratory apparatus. Mechanisms and regulation of breathing. (Respiratory volumes and capacities). Pressures, recoil tendency, elasticity, surfactants, pleural liquid, compliance.
29
Transport of blood gases, Dissociation curves, ,, exchange of gases in lungs and tissues, diffusion, perfusion, hypoxia and related terms, fetal and neonatal oxygen transport
30
Frictional resistance to air flow, airways smooth muscle contraction, respiratory muscle work, panting, adaptation of respiration during muscles exercise, high altitude
31
Non respiratory lung functions (thermoregulation & acid base balance, excretion)
32
Characteristics of Respiration in birds
First Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Veterinary Physiology I
Semester II: VPB 122 (Veterinary Intermediary Metabolism)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
1 & 2
Enzymes: Definition, classification and EC numbering of enzymes. Coenzymes, cofactors & isoenzymes. Enzyme units: International units, katal, turnover number & specific activity.
3 & 4
Properties: Protein nature, Enzyme-substrate complex formation, Modern concept of enzyme specificity of enzyme action: substrate specificity, Group specificity, stereo specificity, optical specificity.
5
Factors influencing enzyme action: Effects of temperature, pH, concentration of substrate and enzyme; Enzyme inhibition: Competitive, non competitive, uncompetitive and suicidal inhibition allosteric enzymes.
6 & 7
Biological Oxidation: Enzymes and coenzyrnes involved in oxidation and reduction viz. Oxidoreductase, Oxidases, oxygenases, dehydrogenases, Hydroperoxidases & cytochromes.
8 & 9
Respiratory chain / electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors, uncouplers and other factors influencing electron transport chain
Carbohydrate metabolism along with bioenergetics:
10
Glycolysis
11
Kreb’s cycle along with energetics
12
Glyoxilate cycle, HIVIP shunt. Gluconeogenesis
13
Cori cycle, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis
14
Hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism & regulation of blood sugar.
Lipid metabolism with bioenergetics:
15
Beta oxidation of fatty acid, Ketone body formation
16
Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Triacylglycerol metabolism
17
Phospholipids & lipoprotein metabolism
Protein metabolism:
18
Biosynthesis of proteins
19
Degradation of protein: deamination, transamination & decarboxylation of amino acids
20
Ammonia transport and urea cycle.
21 & 22
Nucleic acids: Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines
23
DNA & RNA biosynthesis
24
Integration of metabolism
25
Metabolic functions of macro nutrients
26
Metabolic functions of micro nutrients
Metabolic functions of lipid soluble vitamins:
27
Metabolic functions of Vitamin A & E
28
Metabolic functions of Vitamin D & K
Metabolic functions of water soluble vitamins:
29
Vitamin C
30
Thaimine, Riboflavin, Niacin & Pyridoxine,
31
Pantothenic acid, Folic acid & Cynocobalamin.
32
Use of isotope in metabolic studies.
 
 
Second Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Veterinary Physiology II
Semester IV: VPB 221 (Endocrinology, Reproduction, Growth and Environmental Physiology)
Credit Hours: 3 + 1 = 4
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
Endocrinology
1
Introduction and scope of the course, historical background and components of endocrine system (endocrine glands, hormones, target cells / receptors). Methods of studying endocrine glands and measurements of hormones, endocrine, paracrine autocrine action and solinocrine secretion receptors, agonists, antagonists. Effects of hormone action.
2 & 3
Physiology of hormones: definition, classification (according to the source of secretion, chemical nature and nature of action). Hormone transport, general mode of action (peptide, steroid, and amine). Hormone cell interaction, regulation / control of hormone secretion (humeral, nervous, genetic control), metabolism of hormones, biological half life clearance from the blood. General functions of hormones.
4 to 6
Hypothalamo – hypophyseal hormones (development of the pituitary gland, location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, dysfunctions) hypothalamo – hypophyseal axis
7 & 8
Thyroid (development of the gland, location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, biosynthesis and fate of thyroid hormones, physiological actions, dysfunctions: hypo and hyper thyroidism, goiter and types, treatment) anti thyroid compounds, control of secretion.
9 & 10
Pancreas ( location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, dysfunctions – diabetes mellitus) control of secretion
11 & 12
Adrenals – Adrenal cortex (location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, dysfunctions – Cushing’s syndrome Addison’s diseases and others). Control of secretion Rennin Angiotensin mechanism. Atrial Natriuretic Factors (ANF)
13 & 14
Adrenal medulla (location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, differences and similarities between epinephrine and non epinephrine, control of secretion
15 & 16
Calcium regulating hormones – Parathyroid gland (location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, control of secretion, dysfunctions)
17 & 18
Calcitonin and vitamin D: source of secretion, chemistry, physiological action and control of secretion in action of calcium regulating hormones Disorders and differences
19 & 20
Thymus and pineal gland (location, histological details / cells, hormones, chemistry of hormones, physiological actions, dysfunctions) control of secretion
21
Prostaglandins, erythropoietin, pheromones: source of secretion, chemical nature and action.
22
Gastrointestinal hormones: source of secretion, chemical nature and action.
Reproduction
23 & 24
Genetic and endocrine control of gonadal development. Modification of GnRH release (introspective and extrospective) Functional anatomy of female reproductive tract (puberty and sexual maturity, endocrine mechanism and factors affecting photoperoidism)
25 & 26
Ovarian functions. Follicular development, dynamics. Ovulation.  Endocrine and receptor profile. Functions and regulation of estrogens and progesterone; Ovarian cycle. Sexual receptivity. Ovum transport. Reproductive cycles in farm animals and changes in female reproductive tract.
27 & 28
Functional anatomy of male reproductive tract. Functions of sertoli and leydig cells. Spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cycle and wave, structure of spermatozoan; Semen: composition: evaluation. Testosterone: function and regulation. Cryptorchidism. Uses of androgens. Capacitation. Mating. Fertilization.
29
Pregnancy / gestation:  period of ovum, embryo and foetus. Placentation functions of placenta. Hormones in biological fluids during pregnancy and their use in pregnancy diagnosis.
30
Maternal, foetal and placental participation in pregnancy and parturition.
Factors inducing the parturition preparturient endocrine events.  Mechanism of parturition. Immunology of gestation.
Lactation
31
Functional and metabolic organization of mammary glands, structure and development. Hormonal control of mammary growth, Effect of estrogens and progesterone.
32 & 33
Lactogenesis and galactopoiesis: Role of hormones. Biosynthesis of milk constituents, secretion of milk, milk let down. Lactation cycle.
34
Composition of milk, metabolic changes in mastitis. Prolactin and mammary tumors.
Growth and environmental physiology
35 – 36
(Growth – concept – cellular – hyperplasia and hypertrophy – and other aspects etc.) Biochemical and genetic determinants of growth. Regulation of growth. Metabolic and hormone interactions. (Prenatal growth – aspects – cleavage and differentiation). Organogenesis. (Developmental horizons). (Factors affecting prenatal and post natal growth) (EGF, NGF, Chalones, Promines, retine, erythropoietin etc.) 
37 – 38
Factors affecting efficiency of growth and production in ruminants and single stomach animals. Growth in meat producing animals and birds. Growth curves (absolute, relative and specific growth). (Growth regulators: hormones, feed additives, antibiotics, anthelmentics, etc.).
39
Recombinant gene transfer technologies in growth manipulation – advantages and limitations. Growth in meat producing animals and birds. Protein deposition in animals and poultry.
40
Climatology: (definition of weather, climate, Macroclimate, And Micro climate. Thermoneutral zone and critical temperature). Cold and warm blooded animals.
41
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Circadian rhythm. Importance and effects of various environmental variables like – temperature, humidity, light, radiation and altitude on animal performance, endocrine functions and reproductive functions.
42 & 43
Hibernation and aestivation. Heat exchange mechanisms: physical (conduction, convection and radiation) and chemical (metabolic) regulation Body temperature. Heat balance. Heat tolerance. Hyperthermia and hypothermia. Thermoregulation in farm animals.
44
Acclimation, acclimatization; Role of skin; Responses of animals to heat and cold; (Circulatory responses, sweating, panting, thermogenesis); Heuristic models and role of hypothalamus in thermoregulation; Fever.
45 & 46
System and patterns (types) of behavior; Neurophysiology of behavior;
47 & 48
Communication; Learning and memory; Behavioural plasticity.
 
Third Year B.V.Sc & A.H.
Semester VI: VPB 221 (Endocrinology, Reproduction, Growth and Environmental Physiology)
Credit Hours: 2 + 1 = 3
Tentative lecture schedule
Lecture
No.
Topic
Endocrinology
1
Definitions, basic concepts and scope of animal biotechnology.
2 & 3
Recombinant DNA technology: Principles, procedures and applications
4 & 5 (Micro)
Gene cloning, vectors and expression vectors. New generation vaccines:
subunit, recombinant and recombinant vectored vaccines
6
Animal tissue culture: Principles, procedure and application
7 & 8
Transformation and cell lines: Principles, procedure and application
9
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application in molecular diagnosis. DNA probes, nucleic acid hybridization
10 & 11
Transfection, Transgenic animal and biopharming
12 & 13
Construction of genomic library and cDNA library
14 & 15
DNA sequencing – genome, sequencing and mapping
16
Marker assisted selection and gene banking
17
Nutritional biotechnology including bioconversion of lignocellulose, genetic manipulation of microbes for improved feed utilization and health
18 & 19
Principles of transfer of nucleic acids and proteins (Southern, Northern and Western blotting), DNA fingerprinting and its applications
20
Tumour markers and acute phase proteins
21
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies
22
Fermentation process
23
Technologies for milk, meat and leather
24 (Gyn)
Biotechnological application in animal improvements: Embryo biotechniques, in vivo embryo production, Embryo micromanipulation
25
In vitro embryo production, Embryo sexing
26
Embryo preservation, Embryo cloning
27 & 28
Ethics and regulatory issues in biotechnology, IPR, Bioinforrnatics

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