PG Syllabus

Theory            
VPH 601        
ELEMENTS OF VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH          (1+1)
1 The purposes and scope of veterinary public health
2 Veterinary interests in public health, common bases for veterinary practices and public health practices
3 Principal functions and fields of activity of public health veterinarians

  1. Activities usually undertaken by veterinary public health units
4
  1. Other services performed by public health veterinarian
5
  1. Aspects of Veterinary research and services to which veterinary public health units can provides access
6
  1. Some emerging veterinary activities of importance to human health
7 Definition of veterinary public health administration

Organization, administration and implementation of veterinary public health services and programmes.

8
  1. Establishing objectives and priorities
  2. The liaison role
9
  1. Administrative relationship
  2. Modern management methods
  3. Implementation
10 Public health team, administration and functions

  1. The team approach to health problems
  2. Members of public health team
11
  1. Organization structure of health departments
  2. The administrator and cross –cultural relationship in administrative practices
12 Place of veterinarian in the public health team

  1. Administrative placement of veterinary programs related to human health
13
  1. Veterinary programs in public health organizations
  2. Special facets of veterinary public health practice
14
  1. Definition & Scope of human health. Role of Veterinarians in Human Health
  2. Other veterinary programmes related to human health
15
  1. Educational preparation for veterinary responsibilities to human health
  2. Veterinary education in general medicine
16 Veterinary public health agencies and institutions in India and abroad.
Practical   VPH 601    ELEMENTS OF VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH         (1+1)
Collection of information about set up of veterinary public health in different countries like,
Underdeveloped countries – African continent
China
Japan
Different European Union countries
Australia
New Zeeland
America
Russia
Brazil
Canada
Developing countries like Malaysia
Sweden
Asian countries
SARC countries
GULF/ Middle East countries
Theory VPH-602         BACTERIAL & RICKETTSIAL AGENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE (2+1)
1. Importance of microbes in relation to veterinary public health
2 Morphology of Bacteria: Differences between prokaryotes & eukaryotes, size of bacteria, microscopy, Shape of bacteria, bacterial cell structure, Bacterial cell wall structure in Gram positive & Gram negative, acid fast bacteria.
3 Study of factors influencing growth and development of bacterial and rickettsial agents in nature/ environment
4 Bacterial spores- structure, endospore exospore, conidiospores, sporingiospore classification of bacteria depending upon spore, heat stability of spores and its potential to cause infections
5 Bacterial capsule- structure and composition, Bacterial flagella- structure,  motility & its classification, its role in pathogenesis
6 Different types of media used for isolation and identification of different bacterial and rickettsial agents – Part I
7 Different types of media used for isolation and identification of different bacterial and rickettsial agents – Part II
8 Study of Bacterial Growth curve

Quantitative measurement of Bacterial Growth:-Direct Microscopic count, Plate Count Method, Membrane Filter Count

9 Bacterial culture- Methods of isolation in pure culture
10 Maintenance and preservation of pure culture
11 Colony characteristics of bacteria on different growth media
12 Different Biochemical test for identification of bacterial agents
13 Ecology of bacteria- Microflora of soil- Interactions among soil organisms, Biochemical role of soil organisms
14 Microflora of water- Aquatic environment, Distribution of organisms in water, Role and importance of aquatic microbial ecosystem
15 Microflora of outdoor and indoor air, Methods for enumeration of bacterial flora of air
16 Different routes of transmission  of bacterial and rickettsial agents
17 Survivability of bacterial and rickettsial agent in nature
  Description of following bacteria in relation to etiology, epidemiology, transmission, disease, diagnosis, prevention and control for following agents
18 Bacillus : B. antracis, B. cereus, B. stearothermophilus etc
19 Listeria : L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovi etc
20 Mycobacterium : M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. paratuberculosis, etc
21 Clostridium : C. tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum etc
22 Staphylococcus : S. aureus, S. epidermidis etc
23 Streptococcus : S. agalactiae, S. dysagalactiae, S. uberis, S. pyogens, S. pneumoniae etc
24 Brucella : B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. canis etc
25 Leptospira : L. interrogens, L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagica, L. biflexa, L. conicula
26 Vibrio : V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae etc
27 Salmonella : S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi, S. Dublin, S. Enteritidis
28 Escherchia : E. coli O157:H7 and Others
29 Compylobacter : C. foetus, C. jejunii C. enteritis etc

Enterococcus and Micrococcus : S. faecalis, S. faecium, S. durans etc

30 Yercinia : Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica etc

Lactobacillus : L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentii etc

31 Coxiella and other Rickettsia : C. burnetii etc
32 Chlamydia : C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae etc
Suggested book reading:
  1. Holt J. G., Krieg  N. R., Sneath P. A., Staley J. J. & William S.T. (1994), Bergey Mannual of Determinative bacteriology- Williams & Wilkins
  2. Veterinary Bacteriology & Mycology – Carter- Wise
  3. Veterinary Bacteriology & Virology – Merchant & Packer
  4. Textbook of Microbiology-Anant Narayan & Paniker
  5. Microbiology- Pleczar
  6. Textbook of elements of VPH – Sherikar, Bachil and Thaplial
  7. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals by Pedro N. Acha and Boris Szyfres
Practical Schedule
Course Title: BACTERIAL & RICKETTSIAL AGENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE
Course No.: VPH 602                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Practical Topic
1. Isolation & identification methods of B. anthracic, B. cereus
2. Isolation & identification methods of L. monocytogenes
3. Isolation & identification methods of M. tuberculosis

Tuberculin and JD Test in farm animals

4 Isolation & identification methods of C. tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum,
5 Isolation & identification methods of S. aureus, Enterococci,  Micrococci & lactobacillus
6 Isolation & identification methods of E. coli
7 Isolation & Identification of Compylobacter
8 Isolation & identification methods of Salmonella, Shigella and Proteus
9 Isolation & identification methods of Brucella
10. Isolation & identification methods of leptospira
11. Isolation & identification methods of Yersinia
12 Isolation & identification of Pseudomonas
13. Isolation & identification methods of Coxiella & Chlamydia
14. Study of biochemical characteristics of different bacterial and rickettsial agents
15. Study of serological techniques for important bacterial and rickettsial pathogens
16. Study of different molecular techniques for important bacterial and rickettsial pathogens
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: VIRAL, FUNGAL AND PARASITIC AGENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE
Course No.: VPH 603                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Lecture No. Topic
1 Structure of Viruses and their classification
  Systemic study of following viral  agents in relation to the Morphology, Etiology, Ecological Properties, Transmission, Susceptibility in nature, Clinical features, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment , Prevention & Control
2 Japanese encephalitis , West Nile fever
3 Dengue Fever, Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD)
4 Yellow Fever , Louping ill.
5 Sand fly fever , Rift valley fever
6 Ganjam virus , Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever
7 Rabies
8 Cowpox, Buffalo pox, pseudocowpox, orf virus
9 Encephalomyelitis
10 Infiuenza virus- swine influenza, Avian influenza.
11 Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
12 Unclassified virus: Mad cow disease (BSE), CJ disease.
13 Enteroviruses
  Study of following fungal agents in relation to Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Control & Prevention and control
14 Aspergillus- A. fumigates, A. flavus, A. niger,
15 Penicillium
16 Fusarium
17 Candida – C. albicans
18 Histoplasma – H. Capsulatum, Cryptococcus neoformans
19 Microsporum
20 Trichophyton – zoophilic dermatophytes, geophilic Dermatophytes, Anthropophilic Dermatophytes
21 Blastomycosis – B. Dermatitidis, coccidioidomycosis – C. imitis
22 Rhinocoridiosis – R. Seeberi , sporotrichosis
23 Dermatophytosis, Nocardiosis
  Systemic study of following parasitic  agents in relation to    Epidemiology , life cycle,  Pathogenesity, Diagnosis, Prevention & Control
24 Taeniasis – T. Solium , T. Saginata
25 Hydatidosis – Echinococcus granulosus
26 Trichinelosis – T. Spirallis
27 Toxoplasmosis – T. Gondii
28 Trypanosomiasis
29 Sarcocystosis, Maleria, Leshmaniasis
30 Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans, Diphyllobothrium
31 Fascioliasis
32 Cryptosporidium
Suggested readings:-
  • Textbook of microbiology:  Anaathnarayan & Panikar
  • Fundamentals of parasitic zoonosis: Pathak KML
  • Essentials oF vet. Bacteriology & mycology: Carter G. R., Darla J. Wise
  • Elements of Vet. Public health  By Sherikar et. al.
  • Parasitic Zoonosis – By Pariza
  • Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals by Pedro N. Acha and Boris Szyfres
Practical Schedule
Course Title: VIRAL, FUNGAL AND PARASITIC AGENTS OF PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE
Course No.: VPH 603                                                                         Course Credits: (2+1)
Sr. No.
Topic
Isolation & Identification Methods of following
1
Japanese Encephalitis
2
Rabies
3
KFD, Rift valley fever
4
Influenza
5
Enteroviruses
6
Aspergillus
7
Fusarium
8
Histoplasma Mucur, Microsporium
9
Trichopyton & Sporotrichum
10
Taenia
11
Echinococcus
12
Trichinella
13
Toxoplasma
14
Diphyllobothrium
15
Fasciola
16
Cryptosporidium
Suggested reading
  • Textbook of Microbiology :  Anaathnarayan & Panikar
  • Fundamentals of Parasitic zoonoses : Pathak KML
  • Essentials of Vet. Bacteriology & Mycology : Carter g. R. , Darla J. Wise
  • Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals by Pedro N. Acha and Boris Szyfres
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: ZOONOSES AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Course No.: VPH 604                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Lecture No. Topic
Zoonoses: definition, concept, and scope; concept of one medicine, community health, positive health
Demographic changes in relation to zoonoses,
Classification of zoonoses
Attributes of diseases: Host-agent-environment relationship, natural history/ eco-biology of zoonotic agent, concept of landscape epidemiology
Strategies for management of zoonoses: Prevention, quarantine, control, immunoprophylaxis,  elimination and eradication of zoonoses
Emerging, reemerging and new zoonoses
Biosecurity, bioterrorism
Epidemiological tools for the study of zoonoses; surveillance and reporting systems
Structural organization in the field of zoonoses; National and international organizations, referral laboratories, datasheets; databank, websites, and other valuable repositories.
Study of Geographic information system (GIS) and forecasting systems pertaining to zoonoses;
Approaches and techniques for the diagnosis of zoonoses
Definition, description, etiology, host range, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of important bacterial zoonoses – Anthrax, brucellosis, borreliosis,
Campylobacteriosis, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis, etc
Salmonellosis, shigellosis, yersiniosis, leptospirosis
Listeriosis, plague, tularaemia, glanders, Malioidosis, staphylococcosis, streptococcosis, tetanus, botulism
Clostridial infections, E. coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla, etc
Bacillus cereus, plesiomonas, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, erysipelothrix rhusiopathie, cat scratch disease, etc
Lyme disease, tularemia, necrobacillosis, rat bite fever, opportunistic pathogens, etc
Rabies, vesicular stomatitis, influenza, contagious ecthyma, pox group and some rare and potential zoonoses e.g. Newcastle, etc
Hantaviruses, herpes, ebola and Marburg viruses, Chandipura virus, etc
Food-borne viruses viz. rota, tickborne encephalitis, FMD, hepatitis A & E, Norwalk, entero, parvo, adeno, cytomegalo, astro, calci and corona viruses
Prion zoonoses (BSE, CJD, etc)
Japanese encephalitis, Kyasanur forest disease, chickungunya, etc. Vector-borne viruses viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever,
dengue fever, West-Nile viruses, yellow fever, rift-valley fever, equine encephalitis, louping ill,
Q fever and other rickettsiosis, Coxiella burnetii, Asian Ixido Ricketssiosis, Boutonneuse fever, Flea- borne typhus, Infection caused by Bartonella henselae, Queensland tick typhus, Rickettsial pox, rocky mountain spotted fever, scrub typhus, Zoonotic typhus caused by R. prowazekii  
Chlamydial zoonoses, Psittacosis  
Fungal zoonoses – Dermatophytosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis  
Candidiasis, rhinosporidiosis, sporotrichosis, zygomycosis  
Parasitic zoonoses – Echinococcosis, taeniasis, cysticercosis,  
Toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, cryptosporidiosis, filariasis  
fasciolopsiosis, sarcocystosis, zoonotic trematode infections, cutaneous and visceral larva migrans, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trypanosomosis etc  
Socioeconomic impact of zoonosis  
Practical Schedule
Course Title: ZOONOSES AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Course No.: VPH 604                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Sr. No. Topic
Samples and sampling; use of random tables
Estimation of sensitivity, specificity, analytical precision, etc of different tests employed for the diagnosis of zoonoses
Isolation and identification of important bacterial zoonotic pathogens
Isolation and identification of important viral zoonotic pathogens
Isolation and identification of important parasitic zoonotic pathogens
Isolation and identification of important rickettsial zoonotic pathogens
Isolation and identification of important chlamydial  zoonotic pathogens
Isolation and identification of important fungal zoonotic pathogens
Characterization of the metabolites, toxins, etc: bioassays, chromatography, etc Identification of virulence, pathogenicity, etc
Diagnosis of zoonoses using immunological (allergic)  tests
Diagnosis of zoonoses using  serological tests
Diagnosis of zoonoses using  molecular and other advanced techniques
Calculation of incidence, prevalence, morbidity rate. Mortality rate, case fatality rate, odds ratio, etc
Calculation of t-test, ANOVA, zoonoses incidence ratio (ZIR), use of 2×2 contingency tables; study of cohort and case control studies
Representation of zoonotic data: charts, pie, bar, etc
Retrieval of data : national and global repositories
Course Title: PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE AND SAFETY
Course No.: VPH 605                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Lecture No.
Theory
Practical
Common interest areas of Veterinary Public Health and Food Hygiene
Procedure for sampling of animal origin foods
Common Food animals used for human consumption
Organoleptic and sensory evaluation of animal origin foods
Concept of food hygiene
pH estimation
Principles of food hygiene
Various platforms tests to detect physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of animal origin foods (meat, milk and their products)
Role of hygiene in production of clean and safe foods (meat, milk, fish and eggs)
Microbial analysis of meat, egg for enumeration of various bacteria
Hygiene during transportation and marketing of animal origin foods
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of various viruses
Hygiene during packaging of foods
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of yeast and molds
Personal hygiene during production, processing and distribution of foods
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of parasites
Impact of environmental sanitation on food quality
Isolation and identification of microflora from raw animal origin foods (meat, milk, fish and eggs)
Impact of water on food quality
Isolation and identification of microflora from ready to eat food products
Impact of equipments and cleaning on food quality
Testing of adulteration of animal origin foods (meat, milk and their products)
Sources of entry of antibiotic, pesticide, hormone and  heavy metal residues in foods and their prevention
Methods of spoilage detection of meat, milk, eggs and seafoods
Food spoilage – sources of contamination, causes of food spoilage
Assessment of environmental hygiene- methods for monitoring of air contamination
Different types of food spoilage – spoilage of different kind of meat and meat products
Bacteriological examination of water (MPN-Most Probable Number test)
Spoilage of different kind of milk and milk products
Methods for the detection of pesticide, antibiotic, heavy metals and hormonal resudes in animal origin foods
Spoilage of different kind of fish and other seafoods, and egg and egg products
Visit to processing food industry
Spoilage of different kind of canned foods
The food chain
Food safety – Pre-harvest and Post-harvest food safety
Different types of food adulteration (meat, milk etc.) and its detection methods and prevention.
Utilization of by-products from animal origin foods
Hygienic disposal of food wastes
Different methods of food preservation.
Microbiological standards for different animal origin foods and their regulations
Quality assurance and quality control of foods to prevent foodborne infections
Regulatory agencies and organization for protection of food safety
General principles of prevention of foodborne illnesses
Quality management system – GMP, GHP,
Quality management system –HACCP, OSH0 18000,
Quality management system – ISO 9000, ISO 22000
Risk analysis
Socioeconomic aspects of foods of animal origin
 
Practical Schedule
Course Title: PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE AND SAFETY
Course No.: VPH 605                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Practical No.
Topic
Procedure for sampling of animal origin foods
Organoleptic and sensory evaluation of animal origin foods
pH estimation
Various platforms tests to detect physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of animal origin foods (meat, milk and their products)
Microbial analysis of meat, egg for enumeration of various bacteria
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of various viruses
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of yeast and molds
Microbial analysis of foods for enumeration of parasites
Isolation and identification of microflora from raw animal origin foods (meat, milk, fish and eggs)
Isolation and identification of microflora from ready to eat food products
Testing of adulteration of animal origin foods (meat, milk and their products)
Methods of spoilage detection of meat, milk, eggs and seafoods
Assessment of environmental hygiene- methods for monitoring of air contamination
Bacteriological examination of water (MPN-Most Probable Number test)
Methods for the detection of pesticide, antibiotic, heavy metals and hormonal resudes in animal origin foods
Visit to processing food industry
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: FOOD-BORNE INFECTIONS AND INTOXICATIONS
Course No.: VPH 606                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Lecture No.
Topic No.
Food-borne illnesses: definition, types of foodborne illnesses
Sources of food contamination- types of sources of food contamination, primary and secondary contamination.
Foodborne bacterial infection- etiology, clinical symptoms, transmission and type of food involved, prevention and control of following
Salmonella
Campylobacter
Listeria
Vibrio
E.coli
Foodborne bacterial intoxications- Clostridium,
Foodborne bacterial intoxications- Staphylococcus
Foodborne bacterial intoxications- Bacillus cereus
Foodborne toxin-mediated infection
Bacterial toxins and biocides
Foodborne viral infections – infectious hepatitis, poliomyelitis
Foodborne viral infections – gastroenteritis
Foodborne rickettsial and parasitic infections
Foodborne diseases related to meat and meat products
Foodborne diseases related to milk and milk products
Foodborne diseases related to fish and fish products
Foodborne diseases related to eggs and eggs products
Natural toxic substances in foods – naturally occurring poisons from fish and shellfish
Food additives – health problems due to food additives
Antibiotic residues in animal origin foods
Heavy metal residues in animal origin foods
Pesticide residues in animal origin foods
Hormonal residues in animal origin foods
Hygiene during production, processing, transportation, packaging and distribution of foods
Food spoilage – causes of food spoilage, different types.
Preservation of foods – different methods (chilling, freezing etc.)
GMP, HACCP and ISO in food industry
Prevention and control of foodborne illnesses- preharvest prevention
Prevention and control of foodborne illnesses- postharvest prevention
Microbiological standards for different animal origin foods and their regulations
Practical Schedule
Course Title: FOOD-BORNE INFECTIONS AND INTOXICATIONS
Course No.: VPH 606                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Practical No.
Topic
Procedure for investigation of outbreak of foodborne diseases
Collection and processing of suspected food samples
Procedure for detection of foodborne pathogens from meat and meat products
Procedure for detection of foodborne pathogens from milk and milk products
Procedure for detection of foodborne pathogens from fish and fish products
Procedure for detection of  foodborne pathogens from egg and egg products
Isolation and indentification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria
Isolation and indentification of foodborne pathogenic viruses
Isolation and indentification of foodborne pathogenic fungi
Isolation and indentification of foodborne pathogenic parasites
Detection of various animal toxins naturally toxic to man
Detection and quantitation of foodborne pathogens by PCR, Real-time PCR
Detection of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS)
Detection of antibiotic residues in animal origin foods by Bioassay and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method
Detection of pesticide residues in animal origin foods by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry  (GCMS) and  Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (LCMS)
Model development for prevention and control of food borne diseases.
Study of legislations to prevent food borne diseases.
Visit to the place of food borne disease outbreak
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: MEAT AND MILK HYGIENE
Course No.: VPH 607                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Lecture No.
Topic
Different food animals used for slaughter.
Important definitions and principles of meat hygiene.
Present status of meat industry in India.
Selection and grading of meat animals.
Transportation of food animals.
Construction and lay out of slaughter house and equipments.
Ante mortem inspection of food animals.
Pre slaughter treatment of food animals.
Methods of stunning and its effect on meat quality.
Different methods of slaughter and dressing of food animals.
Post mortem examination of meat and importance of examination of lymph nodes in post mortem.
Structure of muscle and, conversion of muscle to meat and chemical composition of meat.
Characteristics of meat of different species and various methods to determine species origin of meat.
Introduction to various quality management systems (QMS), such as HACCP, ISO 9000, ISO22OOO…etc in meat industry.
Sanitation of slaughter house.
Economic utilization of slaughter house byproducts.
Slaughter house waste disposal / ETP.
Food legislation- BIS, APEDA, MFPO, food safety and standards act (2006).
Introduction to milk hygiene- definitions of milk, milk hygiene and principles of milk hygiene.
Composition of raw milk and different types of processed milk.
Present status of dairy industry in India.
Microbiology of raw milk and milk products.
Clean milk production and milk hygiene and practices in India and other countries.
Bactericidal activities of raw milk.
Preservation of milk and milk products.
Spoilage of milk and milk products.
Sanitation of dairy plant and its assessment by different methods.
Various milk born illness of public health importance, food infections and intoxications.
Various food borne toxi-infections and emerging and reemerging infections related to milk and milk products.
Residues of drugs, pesticides, and other foreign substances in milk and their detection methods.
Food legislations in India and other countries related to milk and milk products.- MMPO, PFA Act(1954). And rules (1957),,,etc.
Compositional and bacteriological quality of milk and their methods of evaluation.
Various quality management systems, HACCP,ISO 9000, ISO22OOO…etc in dairy industry.
Practical Schedule
Course Title: MEAT AND MILK HYGIENE
Course No.: VPH 607                                                             Course Credits: (2+1)
Diseases and conditions encountered during ante mortem examination of food animals.
Diseases encountered during post mortem examination of meat.
Different meat cuts and grading.
Different methods used for meat speciation.
Isolation and identification of microorganisms from meat and meat products.
Different methods of identification of meat spoilage.
Testing of abattoir equipments and personnel for hazard analysis.
Testing of water source and effluent of abattoir.
Visit and demonstration of modern slaughter house and meat processing plant.
Collection and sampling of milk and milk products for examination.
Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products.
Various platform tests used in examination of raw milk.
Detection of adulterants and preservatives in milk and milk products.
Detection of antibiotic residues and pesticide residues in milk.
Hygienic evaluation of dairy personnel and equipments and dairy plant environment.
Construction and lay out of ETP for dairy plant.
Visit to modern milk processing plant.
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SAFETY
Course No.: VPH 608                                                             Course Credits: (3+1)
Introduction to environmental hygiene
Agent- host and environmental relationship –Triad Concept
Changing Global scenario about environment
Sources of water pollution and their prevention
Bacteriology of water
Purification and sanitization of water
Methods of prevention and control of water-borne diseases of man and animals
Sources of air pollution
Air sanitation of animal houses, sanitation of animal houses and its effect on animal health and production
Bacteriology of air
Methods of prevention and control of air-borne diseases of man and animals
Atmospheric pollution and methods of control
Sources of soil pollution
Bacteriology of soil
Methods of prevention and control of soil-borne diseases of man and animals
Radiation, radiation hazards
Effect of water, air, soil and nuclear pollution on health
Genetic risk from environmental agents
Radiation pollution and health problems
Heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drug residues on animal and human health- I
Heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drug residues on animal and human health -II
Animal waste: Dissemination of pathogens and health  risk
Disinfection  and sterilization
Role of animal excreta in spread of diseases, its collection and principles of safe disposal.
Aerobic and anaerobic disposal of animal excreta
Slaughter house waste and effluent treatment for safe disposal
Disposal of sewage and farm refuges
Disposal of carcasses of animal died with the notifiable diseases.
Possibilities of utilization of farm wastes – biogas plant
Stray animal control, fallen animal, vector rodent and environmental control-I
Stray animal control, fallen animal, vector rodent and environmental control-II
Green house effect
Global warming and its effects on animal and human health-I
Global warming and its effects on  animal and human health-II
Study of sound pollution and its effect on the human health
Impact of global  environmental problems on society-I
Impact of global  environmental problems on  society-II
Environmental risks and management-I
Environmental risks and management-II
Environmental risk assessment and reporting
Surveillance and monitoring systems
Decision making and public awareness-I
Decision making and public awareness-II
National and International environmental management efforts-I
National and International environmental management efforts-II
Practical Schedule
Course Title: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SAFETY
Course No.: VPH 608                                                             Course Credits: (3+1)
1 Sampling of water for physico-chemical and bacteriological examination
2 Physical examination of water
3 Estimation of total dissolved and volatile solids in water
4 Estimation of dissolved oxygen, COand  residual chlorine in water
5 Estimation of  total alkalinity and total hardness  in water
6 Estimation of potassium permanganate value in water (Tidy’s tests)
7 Estimation of nitrate, phosphorus and sulpahte & other chemicals in water
8 Determination of potability of drinking water
9 Estimation and detection of pathogenic microbes in water
10 Bacteriological examination of air
11 Bacteriological examination of soil
12 Testing of efficacy of different disinfectants
13 Study of disposal of sewage and animal waste
14 Study of pathogenic organism in farm environment
15 Study of different ventilation system
16 Visit to sewage and waste disposal plants/sites.
 
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: FISH, FISH PRODUCTS AND SEAFOOD HYGIENE
Course No.: VPH 609                                                             Course Credits: (1+1)
Introduction and fisheries resources in India. Biochemical composition of fish.
Catching, handling and transportation of fish.
Biochemical composition of fish.
Post mortem changes in fish and quality assessment.
Bacteriology of fish and shell fish.
Methods of preservation of sea foods- drying and dehydration.
Methods of preservation of sea foods-chilling and freezing.
Methods of preservation of sea foods-smoking and curing, canning of fish.
Radiation processing of fish and fish products.
Preparation of fish silage and other fishery products.
Byproducts of fish-fish meal, fish oil, fish liver oil.
Byproducts of fish – fish protein concentrate, fish maws, singlass, chitosan and other sea foods.
Sensory evaluation and spoilage detection in fish.
Sea food quality assurance- application of QMS and HACCP for enhancing food safety.
Marketing of fish- local, national and international markets, MPEDA.
Importance of food borne diseases in relation to public health.
Quality control in fish processing.
Practical Schedule
Course Title: FISH, FISH PRODUCTS AND SEAFOOD HYGIENE
Course No.: VPH 609                                                             Course Credits: (1+1)
Identification of normal characteristics of various fish.
Inspection of fresh and preserved / stored fish, sea foods…etc.
Study of physical and chemical indicators to determine freshness of raw and processed fish.
Microbiological analysis of fishes to determine hygienic quality and safety.
Different methods of processing of fish, shell fish…etc.
packaging of fish and other seafood
Application of HACCP to fish processing plant.
Study of different fish borne diseases.
Study of different methods of drug and pesticide residues analysis in fish and fish products.
Study of different environmental and chemical toxicants and their in fish and fish products.
Visit to a local fish market.
visit to a fisheries catchments area
Visit to a fish processing plant to demonstrate processing fish and preparation of different fish byproducts.
Theory Lecture Schedule
Course Title: BIOTERRORISM AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Course No.: VPH 610                                                             Course Credits: (1+1)
Introduction to disaster and emergency. Understanding the concepts, differences among these.
Classification of disaster /Natural and manmade disaster.

Impact analysis and classification of disaster scale.

Effect of natural disasters like floods, prolonged draughts, forest fires, earthquakes, tsunami and tidal damages, storms etc. on both domestic and wild animal population.
Planning of disaster management including essential preparations, formation of teams/ groups
Role and responsibilities of local, State Govts., Veterinarian, Public Health Veterinarian, Public health organizations in disaster management
Post-disaster disease susceptibility/outbreaks, its emergency control and remedial measures.
International and National Organizations for emergency and disaster management.
Introduction to biosecurity, biosafety  and biomedical hazards
Biological weapons and bioterrorism including its history
Major agents and their characteristics which have been used in the past and those which can be used in future as biological weapons (category A, B and C agents)
Occupational health risk management
Bioterrorism: by bacterial pathogens and their toxins
Bioterrorism: by viral and fungal pathogens and their toxins
Detection methods , Hazard analysis and combating bioterrorism
Role of National and International Organizations in prevention and control of bioterrorism
Bioethics and social ethics, advisory role of veterinarians
Practical Schedule
Course Title: BIOTERRORISM AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Course No.: VPH 610                                                             Course Credits: (1+1)
Strategic plans for combating biohazards and disaster, Development of Protocols-I
Strategic plans for combating biohazards and disaster, Development of Protocols-II
Measurement of disease: determination of morbidity and  mortality rates/ratios
Study of biosafety levels
Studies on protocols for  isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-IV level
Studies on protocols for  isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-III level
Isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-II level (eg. Brucella spp)           (I)
Isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-II level (eg. Clostridium spp)    (II)
Isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-II level (eg. Yersinia spp)          (III)
  1. 10.
Isolation and identification of bioterrorism agent of Class-II level  (eg. Fungal agents)      (IV)
  1. 11.
Biochemical tests viz PAGE, SDS-PAGE, IEF etc for detection of bioterrorism agent
  1. 12.
Immunological tests viz ELISA etc for detection of bioterrorism agent
  1. 13.
DNA-based tests viz PCR etc for detection of bioterrorism agent
  1. 14.
Efficacy testing of disinfectants viz phenol co-efficient against  bioterrorism agent
  1. 15.
Visit to disaster management institutes viz. Civil Defense etc.

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