UG Syllabus

Lecture Schedule : Theory
Course: VPE-311 (2 + 1 = 3) 
Milk and Meat Hygiene, Food Safety and Public Health
Sr.No.
Topic
1.
Introduction to Veterinary Public Health & Epidemiology, Historical significance, Definition of Veterinary Public Health, Epidemiology, milk hygiene, meat hygiene, food safety. 
2.
Milk hygiene in relation to public health. Importance of the subject. Composition of milk as complete food.  Germicidal properties of milk. Role of public health veterinarian in society.
3.
Sources of contamination and its prevention during handling of milk at farm level (Clean milk production etc.)
4.
Sources of contamination and its prevention during processing, storage and transportation of milk.
5.
Microbial flora of raw milk with its classification and characterization.
6.
Microbial flora of milk products with its classification and characterization.
7.
Handling and management of dairy equipments.  Hygiene assessment, sanitation etc.
8.
Quality control of milk and milk products.
9.
Milk hygiene practices in India & other countries.
10.
Legislations and standards for milk and milk products.
11.
Milk borne diseases; its prevention and control – I : Food infection and intoxication
12.
Milk borne diseases; its prevention and control – II : Toxi- infection, emerging diseases
13.
Disposal of Effluent from Dairy plants
14.
Introduction to food animals, definitions. Meat hygiene concept.
15.
Elements of meat inspection. Organization of slaughterhouse, Hygiene in abattoir etc.
16.
Transportation of food animals (Laws, animal-welfare aspects & pathological conditions associated with faulty transportations etc.)
17.
Ante-mortem inspection of meat animals
18.
Stunning methods & different methods of Slaughter of animals including ritual methods of slaughter.
19.
Post-mortem inspection of meat including examination lymph nodes – I. cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig & poultry
20.
Rigor mortis & Composition of meat            
21.
Inspection of egg and aquatic food (fish) for human consumption.
22.
Hygienic disposal of unsound meat (slaughter house waste disposal)
23.
Meat speciation and species identification.
24.
Principles & methods of meat preservation.
25.
Meat spoilage & its control
26.
Meat-borne diseases including occupational health hazards its prevention and control – I : Bacterial and Viral.
27.
Meat borne diseases including occupational health hazards its prevention and control – II : Fungal, parasitic and rickettsial  
28.
Food safety concept. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system
29.
Types of biohazards, Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures in relation to foods of animal origin and aquatic foods.
30.
Toxic residues (pesticides, antibiotics, heavy metals and hormones) and microbial toxins in food and their health hazards – I.
31.
Toxic residues (chemical, pesticides, antibiotics, metals and hormones) and microbial toxins in food and their health hazards – II
32.
Risk analysis: assessment and management. Food safety measures.
33.
International and national food safety standards (WHO, FAO, OIE, WTO, SPS & Codex Alimentarius, Food Safety and Standard Act 2006, BIS, EIC, APEDA, AGMARK, MFPO etc.                 
 Schedule : Practicals
Course: VPE-311 (2 + 1 = 3)  Milk and Meat Hygiene, Food Safety and Public Health
Sr.No.
Topic
1.
Methods of collection of samples for chemical and bacteriological examination
2.
Grading of milk by Physical methods including organoleptic / sensory techniques and physical characteristics like estimation of specific gravity, fat, sedimentation test, clot on boiling test etc.
3.
Grading of milk by various chemical techniques including platform tests as estimation of titrable acidity, alcohol test, ten minutes resazurin test, Methylene Blue Reduction test etc.
4.
Grading of milk and milk products by various microbiological examination like Standard Plate Count, Coliform count, Detection of faecal streptococci, psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic counts.
5.
Detection of adulterants in milk and milk products [water in milk, skim milk, thickening agents (cane sugar, gelatin, starch), colouring matter (annatto, coal-tar dyes & urea etc.)]
6.
Detection of preservatives in milk and milk products (boric acid, borax, formaldehyde, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium carbonates & bicarbonates etc).
7.
Test for detection of heated milk, pasteurized milk, mastitis milk, and demonstration for antibiotic & pesticide residue detection.
8.
Evaluation of water quality for use in dairy plant and tests for plant sanitation.
9.
Visit to milk processing plant / establishments
10.
Study of common food animals
11.
Study of scientific design of an abattoir / modern slaughterhouse
12.
Ante-mortem inspection of food animal & poultry
13.
Demonstration at slaughter house, methods of slaughter of food animals and poultry. 
14.
Visit to meat processing plants, marketing centers and food service establishments
15.
Demonstration at slaughterhouse, Postmortem inspection of carcass
16.
Quality evaluation of meat & meat products by Physical, Chemical and microbiological tests.  Speciation of meat products
17.
Quality evaluation of fish and eggs including Physical & microbiological qualities.
18.
Isolation and identification of organisms of public health significance from meat and meat products, milk & milk products, egg & egg products and seafoods.
Course No. VPE – 321
Title: Veterinary Epidemiology & Zoonoses
Credit Hours : 2 + 1 = 3                                                                   
Lecture Schedule
Sr.No.
Topic
1.
Definitions and aims of Epidemiology.
2.
Epidemiological  approach and basic measurements in Epidemiology – rates, ratios, proportions, morbidity and mortality.
3
Epidemiological  methods I: Descriptive, Analytical (observational), Experimental epidemiology. 
4
Epidemiological  methods II: theoretical (modeling) serological and molecular methods.
5
Factors influencing occurrence of livestock diseases and production – various modes of disease  transmission and classification of determinants of diseases
6
Ecological basis and natural history of diseases  – biomes, biocenosis, ecological niche, population size and their distribution. Types of ecosystem. Epidemic curve, host, agent and environment, the cause of disease and postulates – Koch’s postulates, Evans postulates.
7
Sources, storage, retrival and representation of disease information / data- Management . – nature of data;  classification of data. Non computerized – use of long hand, day book, record cards, proforma’s, punch card recording techniques.
8
Epidemiological hypothesis, testing.
9
Surveillance and monitoring of livestock diseases.
10
Animal disease forecasting.
11
Strategies of disease management, prevention, control and eradication.
12
Economics of animal diseases.
13
National and International regulations on livestock diseases. – ICAR, structure of animal husbandry department, FAO, OIE and WHO.
14
Regulations regarding handling, import and export of animals.
15
Role of OIE and laws on international trade on animals and animal products. – OIE and animal health, animal disease classification as per OIE norms, OIE recommended diagnostic assays, OIE and animal health regulations, OIE food standards. WTO and food trade. – SPS measures,
HACCP, ISO,Codex (CAC).
16
Definitions, objectives and history of zoonoses.
17
Classification of zoonoses based on etiological agent, transmission cycle and reservoir host, and approaches to their management.
18
Study of new, emerging, re-emerging zoonoses and their control.
19
Study of occupational zoonoses and their control.
20
Role of domestic and wild animals in transmission of zoonoses.
21
Role of pets, laboratory animals and birds in transmission of zoonoses.
22
Study of zoonotic pathogens as agents of bio-terrorism.
23
Study of reservoir, clinical manifestations in animals and humans and the management of important zoonotic diseases.
24
Important bacterial zoonotic diseases I:  Anthrax , brucellosis, tuberculosis
25
Important bacterial zoonotic diseases II:  leptospirosis, listeriosis, plague.
26
Important viral zoonotic diseases  I: Rabies, Japanese encephalitis, FMD
27
Important viral zoonotic diseases  II:  Kyasanur forest disease, influenza, BSE.
28
Important parasitic zoonotic disease I: Amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, toxoplamosis, trypanosomiasis.
29
Important parasitic zoonotic disease II: Sarcocystosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis, cutaneous and visceral larva migrans and fascioliasis.
30          
Important rickettsial, chlamydial & Fungal diseases : Q fever, psittacosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histophasmosis, scabies and coccidiomycosis.
   31
Food borne zoonoses I:  salmonellosis, staphylococcosis, Clostridial food poisoning.
32
Food borne zoonoses II:  campylobacteriosis, helminthosis, toxoplasmosis and sarcocystosis.
33
Socio-economic impact of zoonotic diseases
34
Veterinary Public health administration.
Practical Schedule
Veterinary Epidemiology & Zoonoses
Sr.No.
Topic
1
Collection of epidemiological samples – sampling methods in epidemiological studies viz. probability and non probability sampling, simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratify random, cluster sampling, multi stage sampling, cross sectional, cohort and case     control sampling.
2
Study of measurement of disease : determination of morbidity and mortality rates / ratios.
3
Study of generation of epidemiological protocols and reports by questionnaire, pilot survey and testing.
4
Demonstration of selected software programmes / models e.g. EPIZ00, Handi STATUS and India – Admas- EPITRAK. – bio-informatics, net surfing, hypothesis testing.
5
Study of Evaluation of vaccines and diagnostic tests. – quality assurance and quality testing of vaccines.
6
Determination of Association and risks : relative risks, odd’s ratio and attributable risk.
7
Survey of an animal disease on farm. – data collection, clinical sampling, selection of sample size, estimation of disease rate, calculation of confidence interval, hypothetical testing, statistical analysis etc.
8
Study of field survey of zoonotic diseases.
9
Isolation and identification of important bacterias of zoonotic importance from animal and human sources including foods of animals origin.
10
Isolation and identification of important viruses of zoonotic importance from animal and human sources including foods of animal origin.
11
Isolation and identification of important parasites of zoonotic importance from animal and human sources including foods of animal origin.
12
Isolation and identification of important  rickettsia and chlymydes of zoonotic importance from animal and human sources including foods of animal origin.
13
Isolation and identification of important fungi of zoonotic importance from animal and human sources including foods of animal origin.
14
Study of rural environment and health status of rural community.
15
Visit to primary health centre / human hospital.
16
Study of common diseases affecting rural / urban population and probable relationships of these human disease conditions with animal diseases present in the area.
LECTURE SCHEDULE
COURSE NO. : VPE – 511
COURSE TITLE:  ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
CREDITS : 2 + 1 = 3
Sr.No.
Topic
1
Definition, scope and importance of environmental hygiene, environmental components.
2
Ecosystem : types, structure and functions :- Ecosystems components, the structure of ecosystem & principles of ecosystem functions.
3
Food chains :- Trophic relationship: food chains, food web and trophic levels.
4
Biodiversity uses, threats & conservation :- Ecosystem and biodiversity, material cycle in ecosystem (gaseous and sedimentary cycle, elemental cycle), threats to Biodiversity, conservation and preservation of natural biodiversity, reasons for loss of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation strategies globally & biodiversity and food security.
5
Natural resources: forest & minerals their uses and abuses :- Various types of resources (continuous, renewable, nonrenewable and extrinstic resources) & threats/abuse to natural Resources.
6
Natural resources: soil & water their uses and abuses :- Various types of resources (continuous, renewable, nonrenewable and extrinstic resources) & threats/abuse to natural Resources.
7
Environmental pollution: causes and effect :- Sources of environmental pollution, nature of pollutants & effect of pollution on animal, human and plant health and natural monuments.
8
Types of environmental pollution 1) AIR :- Air pollution, sources and effect of air                          pollution on animal, human and plant health and natural monuments, air pollution- Urban                          air pollution, Indoor & outdoor air pollution & air pollution monitoring and control.
9
2) WATER Sources of water & sources of contamination & their prevention.
10
Water qualities :- Physical, chemical, bacteriological and radiological
11
Water purification methods: Small scale purification methods.
12
Water purification method: Large scale purification methods.
13
Sources of contamination, pollution and their control –  soil, marine & thermal :- Land / soil types, soil pollution – acidification, irrigation and Salanization, erosion and desertification, pollution of marine environment, sources and nature of marine pollutants & control of marine pollution Prevention and control of thermal pollution and its effect on environment and human health.
14
Noise pollution :- Sources of noise pollution, sound noise and hearing problems, effect of noise pollution on human & animal health, noise mapping, control of noise pollution & noise pollution rules 2000.
15
Nuclear hazards / Radiological hazard : – Introduction to nuclear hazards, fallout Radioactive waste, effect of radiation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation & radiation protection.
16
Biosafety and risk assessment :- Importance & classification of Biosafety, biosafety measures for prevention of risk hazards, methods of risk assessment, risk assessment, Risk management & risk perception and Risk communication.
17
Environment protection Acts and related issues – water & air legislations :- Global environmental problems, environmental laws; status in India, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – 1974, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – 1981, The Environment (Protection) Act – 1986 & the Biological Diversity Act – 2002.
18
Disaster management :- Definition, earth quake, tsunami, windstorm, volcanoes, floods, Natural hazard management strategies & future planning for sustainable development.
19
Disposal of sewage and farm waste :- Sewage management and treatment, sludge treatment& recycling of farm waste.
20
Health implications of farm wastes :- Effect of discharge of sewage, farm and industry effluent on environment and health.
21
Sanitation and disinfection of animal houses :- Methods of sanitation and different sanitizing
and disinfectant agents used. Its importance in disease control and pollution arrest.
22
Air pollution in animal farms, their prevention & control.:- Air pollution within animal houses and its effect on animal health and productivity.
23
Ventilation & ventilation system within  animal houses & specialized laboratories :- Importance of ventilation & different types of ventilators used in animal houses & specializedlaboratories.
24
Prevention and control of water borne diseases :- Classification of water borne diseases human, animal & zoonotic diseases.  Chemical toxicants.
25
Prevention & control of airborne diseases :- Classification of air-borne diseases human, animal & zoonotic diseases. Chemical toxicants- smoke, smog & dust etc.
26
Problems of atmospheric pollution 1) Global warming and green house effect :- Definition, green house gases and global climate change, possible impact of global warming & Kyoto protocol.
27
Acid rain &  methane,  ozone  as air pollutant :- Nature and development of acid rain, Its effect on animal, human, plant health and natural monuments, mitigation of acid rain problems, Ozone depletion process, Ozone hole, World wide ozone trend, Consequences of ozone depletion & causes of methane production on environment.
28
Meat industry / slaughter house borne pollution :- Classification of  slaughterhouse waste, Characteristic each slaughterhouse waste material & effect of slaughter house waste on environment.
29
Economic Utilization of slaughterhouse waste & disposal of solid waste from Slaughterhouses.
30
Stray and fallen animal management :- Proper and safe disposal of dead animal by burial, buried methods, or by processing.
31
Disposal of liquid waste from Meat industry / slaughter houses.
32
Pollution due to industries other than meat (textile, oil, refineries, Pharmaceuticals, grinding, cement etc.
Practicals
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE
Sr.No.
Topic
1
Water sampling for testing its quality :- Objectives, Methods of water sampling, materials required. Water sampling from river, well, lake, tap, tube well etc. Preservation and sending instruction of sample to laboratory.
2
Physical examination of water quality :- Estimation of pH, colour turbidity, alkalinity & acidity.
3
Physical examination of water quality :- Estimation of total hardness.
4
Physical examination of water quality :- Estimation of total solids. Suspended solids, volatile solids etc.
5
Chemical evaluation of water quality :- Estimation of nitrate, nitrites, chloride, ammonia, phosphate, cyanide etc.
6
Chemical evaluation of water quality :- Estimation of residual chlorine and chlorine demand.
7
Chemical evaluation of water quality :- Estimation of dissolved oxygen.
8
Chemical evaluation of water quality :- Estimation of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).
9
Microbiological examination of water :- Indicator organisms, standard plate count, MPN index, coliform count & Isolation & identification of important pathogenes.
10
Disinfection of animal houses.
11
Determination of efficacy of disinfectants :- Phenol coefficient.
12
Demonstration of water purification system :- Visit to water purification system.
13
Disposal of carcass :- Fallen animals, condemned, suspected animal etc.
14
Study of pathogenic microbes in air & Important bacteria’s present air :- Methods of air                  sampling for microbiological examination & isolation & identification of importance of   airborne pathogens.
15
Demonstration of various ventilation system in animal houses :- Visit to animal houses to study various ventilation systems.
16
Demonstration of toxic residues in water and air :- Visit to environmental laboratory for   demonstration of various techniques to detect toxic residues in water and air.
17
Visit to local polluted site & documentation of local environmental problems :- Visit to local           polluted sites and documentation of local environmental problems – like dumping grounds,  local slum areas, crowded localities etc.

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